Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 216–225 | Cite as

Modeling and Optimization of Lipozyme RM IM-Catalyzed Esterification of Medium- and Long-Chain Triacyglycerols (MLCT) Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Norlelawati Arifin
  • Koh Soo-Peng
  • Kamariah Long
  • Tan Chin-Ping
  • Mohd. Suria Affandi Yusoff
  • Lai Oi-Ming
Original Paper


Optimization conditions of Lipozyme RM IM lipase esterification of capric and stearic acids with glycerol for the production of medium- and long-chain triacyglycerols (MLCT) fat suitable for food applications such as margarine and shortening were investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to model and optimize the reaction conditions, namely, the reaction time (8–24 h), enzyme load (5–15 wt.%), and fatty acids/glycerol ratio (3:1–4:1) and represented by Ti, En, and Sb, respectively. Best-fitting models were successfully established for both MLCT yield (R 2 = 0.9507) and residual FFA (R 2 = 0.9315) established by multiple regressions with backward elimination. Optimal reaction conditions were 13.6–14.0 h for reaction time, 7.9–8.0 wt.% for enzyme load, and 3:1 for fatty acids/glycerol molar ratio. Chi-square test showed that there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the observed and predicted values of both models. Refined MLCT fat blend had sufficient solid fat at room temperature and made it suitable to use as a hard stock in shortening and margarine production.


Esterification Medium- and long-chain triacyglycerols (MLCT) Response surface methodology (RSM) Reaction time Enzyme load Fatty acids/glycerol molar ratio MLCT yield Residual FFA 



Financial support for this work from Golden Hope Sdn. Bhd. is gratefully acknowledged. The authors would like to thank Mr. Azmi and Ms. Goh from MARDI for their kind technical assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norlelawati Arifin
    • 1
    • 6
  • Koh Soo-Peng
    • 1
  • Kamariah Long
    • 2
  • Tan Chin-Ping
    • 3
  • Mohd. Suria Affandi Yusoff
    • 4
  • Lai Oi-Ming
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular SciencesUniversiti Putra Malaysia, UPMSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI)Kuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and TechnologyUniversiti Putra Malaysia, UPMSerdangMalaysia
  4. 4.Sime Darby Research Sdn. Bhd.BantingMalaysia
  5. 5.Institute of BioscienceUniversiti Putra Malaysia, UPMSerdangMalaysia
  6. 6.Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Sains Islam MalaysiaBandar Baru NilaiMalaysia

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