Maize-Based Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Processing Parameters on Sensory and Instrumental Quality
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The performance of maize bread with spongy texture is still a technological challenge due to the absence of a natural network required for holding the carbon dioxide released during the fermentation process. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of different maize varieties (regional and hybrid), milling process (electric and water mill), formulation and processing variables on the sensory and instrumental (specific volume, texture and colour) quality attributes of corn bread. For that purpose, the traditional breadmaking process applied to the development of the ethnic Portuguese bread (broa) obtained from composite maize–rye–wheat flour was modified to produce gluten-free broa. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between regional and hybrid maize were detected in terms of protein, amylose, and maximum, minimum and final viscosities as evaluated by Rapid Visco Analyser. Concerning the effect of milling process, the grinding in a water mill occurs at slower rate than it does in the electrical mill, in consequence the flour from water milling had lower ash content and higher maximum, minimum and final viscosities than the one obtained from electrical milling. An important point in the breadmaking process was the flour blanching that resulted in doughs with higher consistency, adhesiveness, springiness and stickiness as measured by texture analyser, due to the partial gelatinisation of the corn starch. Baking assays demonstrated sensory preference for regional in detriment of hybrid maize varieties for traditional broa production. Breadmaking technology could be satisfactorily applied to produce gluten-free broa.
KeywordsMaize flours Blanching Rheology Broa Maize bread Gluten-free bread
Authors thank the Cerealis Group enterprises (Nacional, Lisboa, Portugal) for supplying ingredients and baking facilities, Armando Ferreira for support on broa crumb texture assessment and colleagues of the department for sensory analysis. Authors thank the financial support of the joint research program between the Spanish/Portugal Scientific Research Council (CSIC, Spain; Grices, Portugal); Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología Project (MCYT, AGL2005-05192-C04-01) and Programa Operacional Ciência e Inovação (PPCDT/AGR/57994/2004).
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