Influence of Gluten-free Flours and their Mixtures on Batter Properties and Bread Quality
Gluten is a major component of some cereals and is responsible for flour technological characteristics to make bakery products. However, gluten must be eliminated from the diet of celiac patients because its ingestion causes serious intestinal damage. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of different flours and their mixtures on thermal and pasting properties of batters, and to study the quality parameters and staling rate of gluten-free breads. Starch gelatinization temperatures and enthalpies depended on batter composition. Soy flour addition had a higher effect on rice than on corn starch, indicating some differential interaction between starch and proteins. Inactive soy flour incorporation improved all bread quality parameters in both corn- and rice-based breads. Higher batter firmness of formulations with soy addition (extrusion force was doubled in rice/soy and rice/corn/soy batters with regard to rice and rice/corn batters) partially explained higher specific volume (rice breads: 1.98 cm3/g; rice/soy 90:10 2.51 cm3/g, corn/soy 90:10: 2.05 cm3/g, whereas corn/soy 80:20: 2.12 cm3/g), as these batters retained more air during proofing. The staling rate was decreased by soy flour incorporation on rice (staling rate of rice breads with 10% soy diminished 52%, and with 20% of soy addition, 77%, both regarding to 100% rice breads) and corn formulation (the staling rate of corn/soy 80:20 breads was 5.9% lower than corn/soy 90:10) because of the high water-holding capacity of soy proteins and the interactions established with amylopectin that could retard the retrogradation process. Breads made with rice, corn, and soy flours showed the best quality attributes: high volume, good crumb appearance, soft texture, and low staling rate.
KeywordsGluten-free bread Celiac disease Soybean Corn Rice
The authors would like to thank the Laboratorio de Idiomas (FCA-UNC) for providing useful suggestions to improve the English language in this paper, and the Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT) and the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) for financial support.
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