Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 68–79

Effect of Rice, Corn and Soy Flour Addition on Characteristics of Bread Produced from Different Wheat Cultivars

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11947-007-0037-7

Cite this article as:
Sabanis, D. & Tzia, C. Food Bioprocess Technol (2009) 2: 68. doi:10.1007/s11947-007-0037-7

Abstract

Preparation and consumption of bread enriched with flours that contain appreciable amounts of protein, lysine, dietary fiber, and minerals will provide a healthy alternative to consumers and also a lowering of bread making cost in countries where wheat is not a major domestic crop. Addition of rice, corn, and soy flour to bread and durum wheat flours at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50% levels was carried out to examine the effects on the baking (specific volume, color, firmness) and sensory characteristics of bread. Dough rheological properties were also studied using Brabender Farinograph and Extensograph. Results of the present study suggest that incorporation of rice, corn, and soy in bread wheat flour up to a level of 10% (flour basis) and in durum wheat flour up to 20% produces bread without any negative effect in quality attributes such as color, hardness, and flavor and reasonable acceptance offering promising nutritious and healthy alternative to consumers. Increasing levels of substitution (30 and 50%) resulted in decreasing dough strength, extensibility, and loaf volume, due to the replacement of gluten by the added protein. Overall acceptability scores of these breads were found to be very low. The durum flour can be substituted with nongluten flours up to 10% more than the bread wheat flour because of its stronger gluten matrix and better dough rheological characteristics.

Keywords

Gluten Durum wheat Rheological properties Firmness Sensory analysis Bread 

Nomenclature

BWF

bread wheat flour

DWF

durum wheat flour

RF

rice flour

CF

corn flour

SF

soya flour

BU

Brabender units

FWA

flour water absorption (%)

DDT

dough development time (min)

St.

dough stability (min)

DS

dough degree of softening (BU)

Ex

dough extensibilty (mm)

R50

dough resistance to deformation (BU)

A

dough energy (cm2)

Sp. Vol.

loaf specific volume (cm3/g)

L

chromatic component (lightness)

b

chromatic component (yellow)

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, School of Chemical EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece

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