Impulse Control Disorders in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

  • Maria Livia FantiniEmail author
  • Franck Durif
  • Ana Marques
Sleep Disorders (A Iranzo, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Sleep Disorders


Purpose of review

This paper reviews clinical and pathophysiological features of both impulse control disorders (ICDs) and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in Parkinson’s disease (PD), as well as current evidences of their association. Then, we suggest recommendations to manage PD patients with RBD in order to prevent this potentially devastating psychiatric complication.

Recent findings

ICDs are psychiatric complications occurring in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) treated with dopaminergic replacement therapies (DRT). Besides DRT, risk factors for ICDs are poorly known. We recently showed an association between ICDs and RBD in PD.


Detecting RBD in PD may provide clinician the opportunity to identify patients at higher risk to develop ICDs. In PD patients with either a video-polysomnographic (v-PSG) diagnosis of RBD or a typical history of RBD when v-PSG is not available, dopamine agonists should be avoided whenever possible, or be prescribed at the lowest effective dose. Furthermore, gradual tapering of dopamine agonist would be recommended, due to the potential increased risk of dopamine withdrawal syndrome in these patients. Increased surveillance, implying patients and caregiver education to recognize early changes in behavior and in mood possibly related to a hyperdopaminergic status, should be part of the preventive strategies.


REM sleep behavior disorder Impulse control disorder Parkinson’s disease Dopaminergic replacement therapy 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Franck Durif reports other from Allergan, other from Aguettant, personal fees from Abbvie, grants from Abbott, other from medtronic, outside the submitted work. Maria Livia Fantini and Ana Marques each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References and Recommended Reading

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    •• Weintraub D, David AS, Evans AH, Grant JE, Stacy M. Clinical spectrum of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease: Spectrum Of Impulse Control Disorders In PD. Mov Disord. 30(2):121–7 The paper provides a comprehensive clinical overview on ICDs in Parkinson’s disease.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weintraub D. Dopamine and impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol. 2009;64(S2):S93–S100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Voon V, et al. Prevalence of repetitive and reward-seeking behaviors in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2006;67(7):1254–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hassan A, et al. Dopamine agonist-triggered pathological behaviors: surveillance in the PD clinic reveals high frequencies. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2011;17(4):260–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Perez-Lloret S, et al. Prevalence and pharmacological factors associated with impulse-control disorder symptoms in patients with Parkinson disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2012;35(6):261–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schreiber L, Odlaug BL, Grant JE. Impulse control disorders: updated review of clinical characteristics and pharmacological management. Front Psychiatry. 2011;2:1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clemm von Hohenberg C, Dreßing H. Stealing as an impulse control disorder associated with pramipexole—a case report from forensic psychiatric practice. Psychiatr Prax. 2017;44(3):172–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gescheidt T, Bares M. Impulse control disorders in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neurol Belg. 2011;111(1):3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sobrido MJ, Dias-Silva JJ, Quintáns B. Behavioral disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Genetic, pharmacological and medico-legal aspects. Rev Neurol. 2009;48(Suppl 1):S43–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Singh A, Kandimala G, Dewey RB, O’Suilleabhain P. Risk factors for pathologic gambling and other compulsions among Parkinson’s disease patients taking dopamine agonists. J Clin Neurosci Off J Neurosurg Soc Australas. 2007;14(12):1178–81.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Voon V, et al. Factors associated with dopaminergic drug–related pathological gambling in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2007;64(2):212–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Belin D, Mar AC, Dalley JW, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ. High impulsivity predicts the switch to compulsive cocaine-taking. Science. 2008;320(5881):1352–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Steinberg L, Albert D, Cauffman E, Banich M, Graham S, Woolard J. Age differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity as indexed by behavior and self-report: evidence for a dual systems model. Dev Psychol. 2008;44(6):1764–78.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Weintraub D, et al. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: a cross-sectional study of 3090 patients. Arch Neurol. May 2010;67(5):589–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Avanzi M, Baratti M, Cabrini S, Uber E, Brighetti G, Bonfà F. Prevalence of pathological gambling in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 2006;21(12):2068–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grosset KA, et al. Problematic gambling on dopamine agonists: not such a rarity. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 2006;21(12):2206–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    • Corvol J-C, et al. Longitudinal analysis of impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2018;91(3):e189–201 The paper investigates longitudinal dose-effect relationship between dopamine replacement therapy and impulse control disorders in 411 PD patients followed for up to 5 years, providing evidences for a strong association between ICDs and both dose and duration of dopamine agonists.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Giladi N, Weitzman N, Schreiber S, Shabtai H, Peretz C. New onset heightened interest or drive for gambling, shopping, eating or sexual activity in patients with Parkinson’s disease: the role of dopamine agonist treatment and age at motor symptoms onset. J Psychopharmacol Oxf Engl. 2007;21(5):501–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bastiaens J, Dorfman BJ, Christos PJ, Nirenberg MJ. Prospective cohort study of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 2013;28(3):327–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Evans AH, et al. Punding in Parkinson’s disease: its relation to the dopamine dysregulation syndrome. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 2004;19(4):397–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ondo WG, Lai D. Predictors of impulsivity and reward seeking behavior with dopamine agonists. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2008;14(1):28–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weintraub D, et al. Association of dopamine agonist use with impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2006;63(7):969–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Garcia-Ruiz PJ, et al. Impulse control disorder in patients with Parkinson’s disease under dopamine agonist therapy: a multicentre study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2014;85(8):840–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rizos A, et al. A European multicentre survey of impulse control behaviours in Parkinson’s disease patients treated with short- and long-acting dopamine agonists. Eur J Neurol. 2016;23(8):1255–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mamikonyan E, et al. Long-term follow-up of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 2008;23(1):75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weintraub D, et al. Amantadine use associated with impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease in cross-sectional study. Ann Neurol. 2010;68(6):963–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thomas A, Bonanni L, Gambi F, Di Iorio A, Onofrj M. Pathological gambling in Parkinson disease is reduced by amantadine. Ann Neurol. 2010;68(3):400–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Weintraub D, Papay K, Siderowf A, Initiative PPM, et al. Screening for impulse control symptoms in patients with de novo Parkinson disease a case-control study. Neurology. 2013;80(2):176–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Driver-Dunckley ED, et al. Gambling and increased sexual desire with dopaminergic medications in restless legs syndrome. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007;30(5):249–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cornelius JR, Tippmann-Peikert M, Slocumb NL, Frerichs CF, Silber MH. Impulse control disorders with the use of dopaminergic agents in restless legs syndrome: a case-control study. Sleep. 2010;33(1):81–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bancos I, Nannenga MR, Bostwick JM, Silber MH, Erickson D, Nippoldt TB. Impulse control disorders in patients with dopamine agonist-treated prolactinomas and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: a case-control study. Clin Endocrinol. 2014;80(6):863–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    • Grall-Bronnec M, et al. Dopamine agonists and impulse control disorders: a complex association. Drug Saf. 2018;41(1):19–75 The paper offers a comprehensive review on the prevalence and factors associated with the development of ICD in patients treated with dopamine agonist agents, affected by different conditions such as PD, RLS and prolactinome.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Santangelo G, Vitale C, Trojano L, Verde F, Grossi D, Barone P. Cognitive dysfunctions and pathological gambling in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 2009;24(6):899–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Djamshidian A, O’Sullivan SS, Lees A, Averbeck BB. Stroop test performance in impulsive and non impulsive patients with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2011;17(3):212–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Siri C, et al. Cognitive status of patients with Parkinson’s disease and pathological gambling. J Neurol. 2010;257(2):247–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Voon V, Mehta AR, Hallett M. Impulse control disorders in Parkinsonʼs disease: recent advances. Curr Opin Neurol. 2011;24(4):324–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bentivoglio AR, Baldonero E, Ricciardi L, De Nigris F, Daniele A. Neuropsychological features of patients with Parkinson’s disease and impulse control disorders. Neurol Sci Off J Ital Neurol Soc Ital Soc Clin Neurophysiol. 2013;34(7):1207–13.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cilia R, van Eimeren T. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease: seeking a roadmap toward a better understanding. Brain Struct Funct. 2011;216(4):289–99.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Koob GF, Volkow ND. Neurocircuitry of addiction. Neuropsychopharmacol Off Publ Am Coll Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;35(1):217–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dagher A, Robbins TW. Personality, addiction, dopamine: insights from Parkinson’s disease. Neuron. 2009;61(4):502–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Steeves TDL, et al. Increased striatal dopamine release in Parkinsonian patients with pathological gambling: a [11C] raclopride PET study. Brain. 2009;132(5):1376–85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    O’Sullivan SS, et al. Cue-induced striatal dopamine release in Parkinson’s disease-associated impulsive-compulsive behaviours. Brain J Neurol. 2011;134, Pt 4:969–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Frosini D, et al. Parkinson’s disease and pathological gambling: results from a functional MRI study. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 2010;25(14):2449–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gurevich EV, Joyce JN. Distribution of dopamine D3 receptor expressing neurons in the human forebrain: comparison with D2 receptor expressing neurons. Neuropsychopharmacol Off Publ Am Coll Neuropsychopharmacol. 1999;20(1):60–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Voon V, et al. Chronic dopaminergic stimulation in Parkinson’s disease: from dyskinesias to impulse control disorders. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8(12):1140–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cormier F, Muellner J, Corvol J-C. Genetics of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease. J Neural Transm Vienna Austria 1996. 2013;120(4):665–71.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kraemmer J, et al. Clinical-genetic model predicts incident impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2016;87(10):1106–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Samuel M, et al. Management of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease: controversies and future approaches. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. Feb. 2015;30(2):150–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schenck CH. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: current knowledge and future directions. Sleep Med. 2013;14(8):699–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fantini ML, Ferini-Strambi L, Montplaisir J. Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder: toward a better nosologic definition. Neurology. 2005;64(5):780–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Iranzo A, et al. Neurodegenerative disorder risk in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder: study in 174 patients. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89741.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Postuma RB, Gagnon JF, Vendette M, Fantini ML, Massicotte-Marquez J, Montplaisir J. Quantifying the risk of neurodegenerative disease in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology. 2009;72(15):1296–300.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Arnulf I. REM sleep behavior disorder: motor manifestations and pathophysiology. Mov Disord. 2012;27(6):677–89.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Howell MJ, Schenck CH. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and neurodegenerative disease. JAMA Neurol. 2015;72(6):707–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    • Fereshtehnejad S-M, Romenets SR, Anang JBM, Latreille V, Gagnon J-F, Postuma RB. New clinical subtypes of Parkinson disease and their longitudinal progression: a prospective cohort comparison with other phenotypes. JAMA Neurol. 2015;72(8):863 This paper provides evidences that the presence of some non-motor features in PD, such as mild cognitive impairment, orthostatic hypotension, and RBD, even at baseline visits, allows to identify a diffuse/malignant subgroup of patients for whom the most rapid progression rate could be expected.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kumru H, Santamaria J, Tolosa E, Iranzo A. Relation between subtype of Parkinson’s disease and REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2007;8(7–8):779–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sixel-Döring F, Trautmann E, Mollenhauer B, Trenkwalder C. Associated factors for REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2011;77(11):1048–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Postuma RB, Gagnon JF, Vendette M, Montplaisir JY. Markers of neurodegeneration in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson’s disease. Brain. 2009;132(12):3298–307.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Postuma RB, Gagnon JF, Vendette M, Charland K, Montplaisir J. REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease is associated with specific motor features. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Oct. 2008;79(10):1117–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vendette M, et al. REM sleep behavior disorder predicts cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease without dementia. Neurology. 2007;69(19):1843–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Marques A, et al. REM sleep behaviour disorder and visuoperceptive dysfunction: a disorder of the ventral visual stream? J Neurol. 2010;257(3):383–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Anang JB, et al. Predictors of dementia in Parkinson disease a prospective cohort study. Neurology. 2014;83(14):1253–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    • Fantini ML, Durif F, Marques A. Neuropsychological aspects: impulse-control disorders and other neuropsychiatric features in RBD. In: Behavior Disorder CH, Schenck BH, Videnovic A, editors. Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2019. p. 509–25. This chapter reviews the current evidences of an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in RBD, both idiopathic and associated to PD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Luppi P-H, et al. The neuronal network responsible for paradoxical sleep and its dysfunctions causing narcolepsy and rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder. Sleep Med Rev. Jun. 2011;15(3):153–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Luppi P-H, Clément O, Valencia Garcia S, Brischoux F, Fort P. New aspects in the pathophysiology of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: the potential role of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and glycine. Sleep Med. 2013;14(8):714–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Brooks PL, Peever JH. Impaired GABA and glycine transmission triggers cardinal features of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in mice. J Neurosci. 2011;31(19):7111–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Boeve BF, et al. Pathophysiology of REM sleep behaviour disorder and relevance to neurodegenerative disease. Brain. 2007;130(11):2770–88.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Boeve BF, et al. Insights into REM sleep behavior disorder pathophysiology in brainstem-predominant Lewy body disease. Sleep Med. Jan. 2007;8(1):60–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dugger BN, et al. Neuropathological analysis of brainstem cholinergic and catecholaminergic nuclei in relation to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder: PPN/LDT nucleus in Lewy body disease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2012;38(2):142–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Iranzo A, Aparicio J. A lesson from anatomy: Focal brain lesions causing REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2009;10(1):9–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Iranzo A, et al. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis. Ann Neurol. 2006;59(1):178–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cornelius JR, et al. Sleep manifestations of voltage-gated potassium channel complex autoimmunity. Arch Neurol. 2011;68(6):733–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Maquet P, et al. Functional neuroanatomy of human rapid-eye-movement sleep and dreaming. Nature. 1996;383(6596):163–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rye DB. Contributions of the pedunculopontine region to normal and altered REM sleep. Sleep. 1997;20(9):757–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Perogamvros L, Schwartz S. The roles of the reward system in sleep and dreaming. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012;36(8):1934–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Frauscher B, et al. Validation of the Innsbruck REM sleep behavior disorder inventory. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 2012;27(13):1673–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fantini ML, et al. Increased risk of impulse control symptoms in Parkinson’s disease with REM sleep behaviour disorder. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2015;86(2):174–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bellosta Diago E, Lopez Del Val LJ, Santos Lasaosa S, López Garcia E, Viloria Alebesque A. Association between REM sleep behaviour disorder and impulse control disorder in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Neurol Barc Spain. 2016.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kim YE, et al. REM sleep behavior disorder: association with motor complications and impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014;20(10):1081–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bayard S, et al. Impulse control disorder and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014;20(12):1411–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rolinski M, et al. REM sleep behaviour disorder is associated with worse quality of life and other non-motor features in early Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2014;85(5):560–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ramírez Gómez CC, et al. A multicenter comparative study of impulse control disorder in Latin American patients with Parkinson disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2017;40(2):51–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    • Fantini ML, et al. Sleep and REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease with impulse control disorder. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2017. This paper provides evidences of an association between Impulse Control Disorders and polysomnographic-confirmed RBD in Parkinson’s disease.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sixel-Döring F, Zimmermann J, Wegener A, Mollenhauer B, Trenkwalder C. The Evolution of REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in Early Parkinson Disease. Sleep. Sep. 2016;39(9):1737–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Solla P, et al. Behavioral, neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders in Parkinson’s disease patients with and without motor complications. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35(4):1009–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Postuma RB, et al. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder: a multicenter case-control study. Neurology. 2012;79(5):428–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Baig F, et al. Personality and addictive behaviours in early Parkinson’s disease and REM sleep behaviour disorder. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2017;37:72–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Jacobs ML, et al. Risk factor profile in Parkinson’s disease subtype with REM sleep behavior disorder. J Park Dis. 2016;6(1):231–7.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Stiasny-Kolster K, Mayer G, Schäfer S, Möller JC, Heinzel-Gutenbrunner M, Oertel WH. The REM sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire—a new diagnostic instrument. Mov Disord. 2007;22(16):2386–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Nomura T, Inoue Y, Kagimura T, Uemura Y, Nakashima K. Utility of the REM sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) in Parkinson’s disease patients. Sleep Med. 2011;12(7):711–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Postuma RB, et al. A single-question screen for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a multicenter validation study. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 2012;27(7):913–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shen S-S, et al. Validation study of REM sleep behavior disorder questionnaire-Hong Kong (RBDQ-HK) in east China. Sleep Med. 2014;15(8):952–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fox SH, Lang AE. Don’t delay, start today’: delaying levodopa does not delay motor complications. Brain. 2014;137(10):2628–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Stocchi F, Torti M, Fossati C. Advances in dopamine receptor agonists for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2016;17(14):1889–902.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Valldeoriola F, et al. The effects of transdermal rotigotine on non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease: a multicentre, observational, retrospective, post-marketing study. Int J Neurosci. 2018;128(4):369–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    •• Béreau M, Fleury V, Bouthour W, Castrioto A, Lhommée E, Krack P. Hyperdopaminergic behavioral spectrum in Parkinson’s disease: a review. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2018. This paper outlines the pathophysiological mechanisms of the hyperdopaminergic behaviors observed in Parkinson’s disease, and provides management strategies.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Chaudhuri KR, et al. A pilot prospective, multicenter observational study of dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord Clin Pract. 2015;2(2):170–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Nirenberg MJ. Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome: implications for patient care. Drugs Aging. 2013;30(8):587–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rabinak CA, Nirenberg MJ. Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2010;67(1):58–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Livia Fantini
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Franck Durif
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ana Marques
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.EA 7280 Laboratory of Neuropychopharmacology of the Subcortical Dopaminergic Systems, UFR MedecineUniversité Clermont AuvergneClermont-FerrandFrance
  2. 2.EEG and Sleep Unit, Neurology ServiceUniversity Hospital (CHU) Clermont FerrandClermont-FerrandFrance
  3. 3.Neurology ServiceCHU Clermont-FerrandClermont-FerrandFrance

Personalised recommendations