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Disorders of Vergence Eye Movements

  • Anthony J. BruneIII
  • Eric R. Eggenberger
Neurologic Ophthalmology and Otology (R Shin and D Gold, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Neurologic Ophthalmology and Otology

Abstract

Purpose of review

The purpose of this review is to summarize current understanding regarding disorders of gaze with comitant ocular misalignment at distance or near and a full range of extraocular movement. Emphasis is placed on clinical features that may be used to differentiate underlying neurologic disease from the more common benign causes. The approach to the diagnostic evaluation and treatment is discussed.

Recent findings

Randomized controlled trials and Cochrane review suggest the superiority of formal office-based vision therapy in treating convergence insufficiency in children. Divergence insufficiency in older adults is a common disorder caused by involution of connective tissues in the orbit. In contrast, divergence insufficiency in children may be a harbinger of central nervous system disease, particularly intracranial tumors.

Summary

Disorders of vergence are common in pediatric and aging adult populations. Benign causes are common but appropriate history and exam emphasizing ocular motility is essential to rule out more concerning diagnoses. Atypical presentations should prompt comprehensive evaluation including neuroimaging. Treatment of benign causes of vergence abnormalities should have a stepwise approach, beginning with the least invasive available intervention, though some patients may require surgery.

Keywords

Convergence insufficiency Convergence spasm Divergence insufficiency Diplopia 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Eric R. Eggenberger and Anthony J. Brune III declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References and Recommended Reading

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Ophthalmology and NeurologyMayo Clinic FloridaJacksonvilleUSA

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