Current Understanding of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

  • Christine M. Baugh
  • Clifford A. Robbins
  • Robert A. SternEmail author
  • Ann C. McKee
Traumatic Brain Injury (JR Couch, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Traumatic Brain Injury

Opinion statement

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a unique neurodegenerative disease found in individuals with a history of repetitive head impacts. The neuropathology of CTE is increasingly well defined. Prospective, longitudinal studies with post-mortem neuropathologic validation as well as in vivo diagnostic techniques are needed in order to advance the understanding of CTE clinically. Given the large number of individuals who incur concussions and other forms of brain trauma, this is an important area for scientific and public health inquiry.


Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) Concussion Brain trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) APOE Biomarker Tau Football 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Christine M. Baugh and Clifford A. Robbins declare that their institution has received R01 grant support from the NIH. Robert A. Stern declares that his institution has received R01 grant support from the NIH. Dr. Stern also declares the receipt of consulting fees from Athena Diagnostics, as well as gifts to his institution from the National Football League, the Andlinger Foundation, and the NFL Players Association. Dr. Stern also receives royalties from Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., for psychological tests developed, and he has received consulting fees from law firms in cases involving sports-related brain trauma. Ann C. McKee declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References and Recommended Reading

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine M. Baugh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Clifford A. Robbins
    • 1
  • Robert A. Stern
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Ann C. McKee
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Boston University School of Medicine, CTE CenterBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurosurgeryBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  4. 4.Boston University Alzheimer’s Disease CenterBostonUSA
  5. 5.Department of PathologyBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  6. 6.VA Boston Healthcare SystemBostonUSA

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