Popular Diet Trends for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Claims and Evidence
Purpose of review
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently look to diet to improve symptoms. Although regularly asked for dietary guidance, gastroenterologists are often unprepared to provide evidence-based recommendations. This review will summarize popular diets claiming benefits in IBD, as well as current data evaluating their efficacies.
The Specific Carbohydrate Diet has demonstrated symptom improvement and even mucosal healing; however, large trials and prospective data are lacking. The low FODMAP diet has shown benefit for functional symptoms in IBD, yet efficacy regarding inflammation is lacking. Large studies for the gluten-free diet yielded mixed results in IBD outcomes, while suggesting a negative impact on psychological well-being. Data on an “anti-inflammatory” diet were positive but remain severely limited. A currently planned large trial for the Mediterranean diet in IBD may provide much needed clinical data.
We provide an overview of frequently utilized diets in IBD. The body of evidence does not currently support clear dietary recommendations in IBD, as larger, prospective studies are needed.
KeywordsInflammatory bowel disease Diet Nutrition Crohn’s disease Ulcerative colitis
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Andrew T. Weber, Neha D. Shah, Jenny Sauk, and Berkeley N. Limketkai declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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