Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of GERD: New Tricks for an Old Disease

  • Rishi D. Naik
  • Lauren Evers
  • Michael F. VaeziEmail author
Esophagus (PG Iyer, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Esophagus


Purpose of review

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common diagnosis encountered by both primary care providers and specialists, but despite its prevalence, there are limitations in the current diagnostic tests for GERD. Once an accurate diagnosis is made, treatment options can be offered, and this field continues to burgeon with options. In this review, we seek to review the recent advances in GERD diagnostics and subsequent treatment options.

Recent findings

Novel impedance markers and novel techniques (mucosal impedance testing, salivary pepsin, high-resolution manometry, and narrow-band imaging) have shown promise in diagnosing GERD. Advances in medical therapy, including potassium-competitive acid blockers and bile acid sequestrants, along with advances in invasive therapy (transoral incisionless fundoplication, endoscopic radiofrequency, electrical stimulation of the LES, and magnetic sphincter augmentation) have provided additional options for therapy for GERD beyond PPI and anti-reflux surgery.


Novel impedance markers and techniques will provide further clarity on mucosal integrity and the barrier function allowing improved diagnostic accuracy of GERD. Improvements in medical and invasive therapy will expand GERD therapy.


GERD Diagnostics Treatment Manometry Motility Mucosal impedance testing 


Author contributions

Authored first draft (RDN, LE), critical revisions (all), approved final draft (all).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Rishi Naik declares that he has no conflict of interest. Lauren Evers declares that she has no conflict of interest. Michael Vaezi declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Financial and Competing Interest Disclosure

Competing interest:

Vanderbilt and Diversatek co-own the patent on MIT technology discussed in this review.

No writing assistance was utilized in the production of this manuscript.

References and Recommended Reading

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rishi D. Naik
    • 1
  • Lauren Evers
    • 1
  • Michael F. Vaezi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Center for Swallowing and Esophageal Disorders, Digestive Disease CenterVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA

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