Updates on Women’s Health Issues in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
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Purpose of review
Inflammatory bowel disease affects approximately 800,000 women in the USA with the peak incidence between ages 15 to 40. Thus for many females, IBD can impact nearly every stage of their life from menarche to pregnancy, menopause, and beyond. This paper will review the most recent updates on the topics of sexual health, cervical cancer screening, menstruation, fertility, contraception, and menopause.
Menarche can be delayed in females especially those who are underweight, malnourished, or with active inflammatory bowel disease. Cyclical GI symptoms during a menstrual cycle are very common in women with IBD and should not be confused with flares. Overall fertility is similar to the general population unless females with IBD have had significant abdominal surgery but reassuringly this infertility appears to be restored with the use of in vitro fertilization. Discussion regarding family planning is imperative in women with IBD with a strong recommendation to consider long-acting highly effective contraceptives such as intrauterine devices or implants. Cervical cancer screening should be tailored in women on immunosuppressive medications and all women under 26 years of age should be advised to receive the human papilloma virus vaccination.
As gastroenterologists will have longitudinal relationships with their female IBD patients, they must be knowledgeable about sex-specific issues during each stage of life from puberty to after menopause to optimize their patient’s care.
KeywordsUlcerative colitis Crohn’s disease Inflammatory bowel disease Fertility Contraception Puberty
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Nirupama Bonthala declares no conflict of interest.
Sunanda Kane has received consulting fees (paid to her institution) from AbbVie, Janssen, and Spherix Health.
Human and animal rights and informed consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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