Virtual Care 2.0—a Vision for the Future of Data-Driven Technology-Enabled Healthcare

  • Sanjeev P. BhavnaniEmail author
  • Amy M. SitapatiEmail author
State-of-the-Art Informatics (J Singh, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on State-of-the-Art Informatics


A busy community cardiologist finished reading eight echocardiograms over lunch and started clinic at 1 pm. As three patients waited, “Jane,” a 45-year-old graphic designer was seen for “skipped heart beat.” She works about 50 h a week, exercises at the local gym, and enjoys eating a healthy diet. About 4 months ago Jane began experiencing her heart “skipping beats.” She initially attributed the symptoms to long hours in the office and caffeine. But, over the holiday, her brother purchased a smart watch and she began digitally recording her cardiac rhythm. About a month ago, the device detected possible atrial fibrillation, so she called and scheduled this visit for a cardiology consultation. Upon that visitation, she and her physician reviewed the device readings. While it appeared to be an irregular rhythm, before either considered a treatment plan, they began to ask questions ranging from the following: “Is this an accurate diagnosis?” “What other data are available to better understand the risk of a cardiac arrhythmia?” “How is this data analyzed so that the best treatment plan can be made?” “And, what type of clinical decision support system is required to ‘virtually’ monitor people like me using digital health devices to improve the efficiency and quality of care delivered in population health?”


Virtual care Digital health Artificial intelligence Clinical decision support Patient engagement Population health 



We thank Alivecor (San Francisco, CA), Dexcom (San Diego, CA), Omron (Osaka, Japan), and Abbott Laboratories (Chicago, IL) developers of the various devices depicted in Fig. 1 as examples of remote patient monitoring technologies in Fig. 1.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Sanjeev P. Bhavnani is a scientific or medical advisory board member to Analytics 4 Life, Blumio, Misceo Grand Technologies, iVEDIX, and WellSeek and is chair of a data safety monitoring board at Proteus Digital. He serves on the innovation steering committees (nonremunerated) at the American College of Cardiology and at American Society of Echocardiography.

Amy M. Sitapati declares no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiology, Principal Investigator Healthcare Innovation & Practice Transformation LaboratoryScripps Clinic & Research FoundationSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Divisions of General Internal Medicine and Biomedical Informatics, Chief Medical Information Officer of Population HealthUniversity of California San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

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