Prevention of Contrast and Radiation Injury During Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
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Purpose of review
In this review, we provide a summary of the recently published literature on various methods of preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) and radiation-related injuries associated with cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
The overall reported incidence of CI-AKI is declining, primarily due to adaptation of a standardized definition for CI-AKI as well as implementation of pre-procedural protocols to prevent or decrease the risk of CI-AKI. The implementation of increasing awareness and establishing radiation protection culture has been shown to be effective measures in reducing radiation exposure.
Coronary angiography and PCI are valuable diagnostic and therapeutic tools in cardiovascular medicine. Accurate imaging of the coronary arteries in cardiac catheterization is dependent on the use of intravascular injection of iodinated contrast media and fluoroscopic imaging. Patients undergoing diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterization may be exposed to a substantial amount of contrast media and ionizing radiation. Administration of contrast media is correlated with increased risk of CI-AKI, and exposure to radiation is known to be associated with a spectrum of acute and chronic tissue injuries.
KeywordsCardiac catheterization Contrast-induced nephropathy Contrast-induced acute kidney injury Radiation injury
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Arash Ehteshami Afshar and Puja B. Parikh each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
References and Recommended Reading
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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