Carcinoid Valve Disease
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Carcinoid is a rare neuroendocrine tumor that typically originates in the gastrointestinal tract and can result in a constellation of symptoms, mediated by vasoactive substances, referred to as carcinoid syndrome. Carcinoid valve and heart disease is characterized by the plaque-like, endocardial fibrous tissue deposits, primarily affecting the right heart endocardium and valves, which result as a consequence of the disease process. Potential mechanisms for the carcinoid valve disease include the complex role of excess serotonin and its interaction with serotonin receptors and transporters. Carcinoid valve and heart disease is a frequent occurrence in patients with carcinoid syndrome and is accountable for substantial morbidity and mortality. Cardiac surgery remains the most effective treatment option for carcinoid valve disease and a multidisciplinary approach at an experienced center is recommended for patients with metastatic carcinoid and carcinoid heart disease.
KeywordsCarcinoid valve disease Carcinoid heart disease Carcinoid tumors Carcinoid Carcinoid syndrome Tricuspid regurgitation Pulmonary regurgitation Pulmonary stenosis Valvular heart disease Serotonin Somatostatin Valves Valve surgery
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Conflict of Interest
Dr. J. Wells Askew declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dr. Heidi M. Connolly declares that she has no conflict of interest.
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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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