Current Urology Reports

, 20:74 | Cite as

Female Urethral Strictures: Review of Diagnosis, Etiology, and Management

  • Nnenaya Agochukwu-Mmonu
  • Sudarshan Srirangapatanam
  • Andrew Cohen
  • Benjamin BreyerEmail author
Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms & Voiding Dysfunction (J Sandhu, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms & Voiding Dysfunction


Purpose of Review

In this review, we describe the incidence, diagnosis, and management of urethral strictures in women.

Recent Findings

Definitive repair of urethral strictures in women traditionally utilizes vaginal and labial flaps. Oral mucosal buccal graft urethroplasty also has high success rates, with larger series demonstrating feasibility and durability.


Urethral strictures in women are very rare. When they do occur, they are often difficult to diagnose, requiring a high index of suspicion. Women with urethral strictures often present with symptoms of obstructed urinary flow, such as incomplete emptying, straining, and elevated postvoid residual. First line, minimally invasive treatment consists of urethral dilation and urethrotomy, though urethrotomy is rarely performed. Repeat urethral dilation has low success rates compared with urethroplasty, which is a more definitive treatment.


female urethral strictures reconstruction urethral strictures 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Nnenaya Agochukwu-Mmonu, Sudarshan Srirangapatanam, Andrew Cohen, and Benjamin Breyer each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nnenaya Agochukwu-Mmonu
    • 1
  • Sudarshan Srirangapatanam
    • 1
  • Andrew Cohen
    • 1
  • Benjamin Breyer
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Urology and Epidemiology and BiostatisticsZuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma CenterSan FranciscoUSA

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