Immunotherapy in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Past and Future Strategies for Optimization
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Purpose of Review
To date, prostate cancer has been poorly responsive to immunotherapy. In the current review, we summarize and discuss the current literature on the use of vaccine therapy and checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).
Sipuleucel-T currently remains the only FDA-approved immunotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer. Single-agent phase 3 vaccine trials with GVAX and PROSTVAC have failed to demonstrate survival benefit to date. Clinical trials using combination approaches, including combination PROSTVAC along with a neoantigen vaccine and checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy, are ongoing. Checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy clinical trials have demonstrated limited efficacy in advanced prostate cancer, and combination approaches and molecular patient selection are currently under investigation.
The optimal use of vaccine therapy and checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer remains to be determined. Ongoing clinical trials will continue to inform future clinical practice.
KeywordsMetastatic prostate cancer Castration resistance Immunotherapy Vaccines Checkpoint inhibitors Neoantigen vaccine
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Melissa A. Reimers and Kathryn Slane each declares no potential conflicts of interest.
Russell K. Pachynski reports personal fees from Sanofi, EMD Serono, Pfizer, Jounce, Dendreon, Bayer, Genomic Health, Merck, Genentech/Roche, and AstraZeneca; research collaboration/support from Janssen; and institutional support from Genentech/Roche.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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