What Is New in Neuromodulation?
Neuromodulation encompassing sacral and peripheral modalities is an established, effective, and safe higher-order treatment option approved in the USA for managing refractory overactive bladder, non-obstructive urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. This review highlights the most recent literature, indications, treatment durability, and the latest innovations in this field. Regarding sacral neuromodulation (SNM), recent work suggests improved parameters for optimal lead placement, increased data to support the lasting effects of treatment, and novel applications of this technology to other pelvic disorders. In addition, there are emerging technologies with smaller MRI compatible devices. Newer data on percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) suggests it may be more beneficial for certain patients. With new technology, implantable tibial nerve stimulators are ushering in a new frontier of nerve stimulation in the comfort of the patient’s home.
KeywordsNeuromodulation Sacral neuromodulation LUTS PTNS Tibial nerve stimulators
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Courtenay K. Moore, Jessica J. Rueb, and Samir Derisavifard each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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