Current Urology Reports

, 20:48 | Cite as

Anatomy of Classic Bladder Exstrophy: MRI Findings and Surgical Correlation

  • Emily A. DunnEmail author
  • Matthew Kasprenski
  • James Facciola
  • Karl Benz
  • Mahir Maruf
  • Mohammad H. Zaman
  • John Gearhart
  • Heather Di Carlo
  • Aylin Tekes
New Imaging Techniques (S Rais-Bahrami and K Porter, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on New Imaging Techniques


Purpose of Review

The exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC) represents a group of congenitally acquired malformations involving the musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. Classic bladder exstrophy (CBE) is the most common and best studied entity within the EEC. In this review, imaging features of CBE anatomy will be presented with surgical correlation.

Recent Findings

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a useful modality for pre- and postnatal assessment of the abdominal wall, pelvic floor, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems of children with CBE. The authors’ experience supports use of preoperative MRI, in conjunction with navigational software, as a method for identifying complex CBE anatomy.


Imaging facilitates surgical approach and improves visualization of complex anatomy, potentially helping to avoid complications. Continued investigation of imaging guidance in CBE repair is needed as surgical techniques improve.


Classic bladder exstrophy Exstrophy-epispadias complex Magnetic resonance imaging Anatomy Surgical repair Imaging guidance 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Emily A. Dunn, Matthew Kasprenski, James Facciola, Karl Benz, Mahir Maruf, Mohammad H. Zaman, John Gearhart, Heather Di Carlo, and Aylin Tekes each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emily A. Dunn
    • 1
    Email author
  • Matthew Kasprenski
    • 2
  • James Facciola
    • 3
  • Karl Benz
    • 2
  • Mahir Maruf
    • 2
  • Mohammad H. Zaman
    • 2
  • John Gearhart
    • 2
  • Heather Di Carlo
    • 2
  • Aylin Tekes
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological ScienceJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Robert D. Jeffs Division of Pediatric Urology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institutions, Charlotte Bloomberg Children’s HospitalJohns Hopkins HospitalBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological ScienceJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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