Anatomy of Classic Bladder Exstrophy: MRI Findings and Surgical Correlation
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Purpose of Review
The exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC) represents a group of congenitally acquired malformations involving the musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. Classic bladder exstrophy (CBE) is the most common and best studied entity within the EEC. In this review, imaging features of CBE anatomy will be presented with surgical correlation.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a useful modality for pre- and postnatal assessment of the abdominal wall, pelvic floor, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems of children with CBE. The authors’ experience supports use of preoperative MRI, in conjunction with navigational software, as a method for identifying complex CBE anatomy.
Imaging facilitates surgical approach and improves visualization of complex anatomy, potentially helping to avoid complications. Continued investigation of imaging guidance in CBE repair is needed as surgical techniques improve.
KeywordsClassic bladder exstrophy Exstrophy-epispadias complex Magnetic resonance imaging Anatomy Surgical repair Imaging guidance
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Emily A. Dunn, Matthew Kasprenski, James Facciola, Karl Benz, Mahir Maruf, Mohammad H. Zaman, John Gearhart, Heather Di Carlo, and Aylin Tekes each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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