Advertisement

Current Urology Reports

, 19:73 | Cite as

Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Sequencing Oral and Infusion Agents

  • Sarah Bennett Starosta
  • Stephen J. Savage
Prostate Cancer (S Prasad, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Prostate Cancer

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To update treatment options and considerations for castration-resistant prostate cancer with specific attention to sequencing of agents based on available evidence and treatment rationale.

Recent Findings

The newest research developments over the last several years include multicenter studies that address the sequencing of therapies to improve the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Chemotherapy agents, as well as androgen receptor antagonists, are evolving, and there are new tests available to define which patients are more likely to benefit. In addition, there have been some additional trials looking into the safety and efficacy of combination treatment and new therapies.

Summary

There are multiple factors that should be considered to determine the sequence and/or combinations of therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that can improve quality of life and survival. Promising novel agents in combination with personalized medicine will likely continue to improve treatment of these patients.

Keywords

Prostate cancer Castration-resistant Treatment sequence Novel androgen-directed therapies 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Sarah B. Starosta and Stephen J. Savage each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major Importance

  1. 1.
    Noone AM, H.N., Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest A, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA, SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2015. based on November 2017 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2018. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, 2018.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Scher HI, Solo K, Valant J, Todd MB, Mehra M. Prevalence of prostate cancer clinical states and mortality in the United States: estimates using a dynamic progression model. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0139440.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139440.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huggins C, Hodges CV. The effect of castration of estrogen and androgen injection on serum phosphatases and metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. Studies on Prostate Cancer. 1941;1(4):293–7.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grayhack JT, Keeler TC, Kozlowski JM. Carcinoma of the prostate. Hormonal Therapy Cancer. 1987;60:589–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schally AV. New approaches to the therapy of various tumors based on peptide analogues. Horm Metab Res. 2008;40(5):315–22.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1073142.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Loblaw DA, Virgo KS, Nam R, Somerfield MR, Ben-Josef E, Mendelson DS, et al. Initial hormonal management of androgen-sensitive metastatic, recurrent, or progressive prostate cancer: 2006 update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology practice guideline. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(12):1596–605.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2006.10.1949.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Handy CE, Antonarakis ES. Sequencing treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Curr Treat Options in Oncol. 2016;17(12):64.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11864-016-0438-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Greenspan S, Coates P, Sereika S, Nelson JB, Trump DL, Resnick NM. Bone loss after initiation of androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(12):410–6417.  https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2005-0183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Smith MR, Saad F, Chowdhury S, Oudard S, Hadaschik BA, Graff JN, et al. Apalutamide treatment and metastasis-free survival in prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(15):1408–18.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1715546.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    •• Crawford ED, Higano CS, Shore ND, Hussaini M, Petrylack DP. Treating patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer: a comprehensive review of available therapies. J Urol. 2015;194(6):1537–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2015.06.106. Great reivew of previous treatments CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tannock IF, de Wit R, Berry WR, Horti J, Pluzanska A, Chi KN, et al. Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(15):1502–12.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa040720.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berthold DR, Pond GR, Soban F, de Wit R, Eisenberger M, Tannock IF. Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer: updated survival in the TAX 327 study. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(2):242–5.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.12.4008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Petrylak DP, Tangen CM, Hussain MH, Lara PN Jr, Jones JA, Taplin ME, et al. Docetaxel and estramustine compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone for advanced refractory prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(15):1513–20.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa041318.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    de Bono JS, Oudard S, Ozguroglu M, Hansen S, Machiels JP, Kocak I, et al. Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9747):1147–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61389-X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    • Oudard S, Fizazi K, Sengeløv L, Daugaard G1, Saad F, Hansen S, Hjälm-Eriksson M, Jassem J, Thiery-Vuillemin A, Caffo O, Castellano D, Mainwaring PN, Bernard J, Shen L, Chadjaa M, Sartor O. Cabazitaxel versus docetaxel as first-line therapy for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a randomized phase III trial-FIRSTANA. J Clin Oncol 2017: 35(28): 3189–3197. Doi:  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.72.1068. Review of taxane chemotherapy role.
  16. 16.
    Ryan CJ, Smith MR, Fizazi K, Saad F, Mulders PF, Sternberg CN, Miller K, Logothetis CJ, Shore ND, Small EJ, Carles J, Flaig TW, Taplin ME, Higano CS, de Souza P, de Bono JS, Griffin TW, De Porre P, Yu MK, Park YC, Li J, Kheoh T, Naini V, Molina A, Rathkopf DE. Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (COU-AA-302): final overall survival analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol 2015: 16(2): 1205–1207. Doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)71205-7, 152, 160.
  17. 17.
    Beer TM, Armstrong AJ, Rathkopf DE, Loriot Y, Sternberg CN, Higano CS, et al. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(5):424–33.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1405095.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Penson DF, Armstrong AJ, Concepcion R, Agarwal N, Olsson C, Karsh L, et al. Enzalutamide versus Bicalutamide in castration-resistant prostate cancer: the STRIVE trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(18):2098–106.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2015.64.9285.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shore ND, Chowdhury S, Villers A, Klotz L, Siemens DR, Phung v OS, et al. Efficacy and safety of enzalutamide versus bicalutamide for patients with metastatic prostate cancer (TERRAIN): a randomised, double-blind, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2016;17(2):153–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00518-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    •• Antonarakis ES, Lu C, Luber B, Wang H, Chen Y, Zhu Y, et al. Clinical significance of androgen receptor splice variant-7 mRNA detection in circulating tumor cells of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with first- and second-line abiraterone and enzalutamide. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(19):2149–56.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.70. Good paper about the efficacy of novel androgen agents with splice variants. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Antonarakis ES, Lu C, Wang H, Luber B, Nakazawa M, Roeser JC, et al. AR-V7 and resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone in prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(11):1028–38.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1315815.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Antonarakis ES, Lu C, Luber B, Wang H, Chen Y, Nakazawa M, et al. Androgen receptor splice variant 7 and efficacy of taxane chemotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. JAMA Oncology. 2015;2015(1):582–91.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.1341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fizazi K, Albiges L, Loriot Y, Massard C. ODM-201: a new-generation androgen receptor inhibitor in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2015;15(9):1007–17.  https://doi.org/10.1586/14737140.2015.1081566.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fizazi K, Massard C, Bono P, Jones R, Kataja V, James N, et al. Activity and safety of ODM-201 in patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (ARADES): an open-label phase 1 dose-escalation and randomised phase 2 dose expansion trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(9):975–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70240-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Small EJ, Schellhammer PF, Higano CS, Redfern CH, Nemunaitis JJ, Valone FH, et al. Placebo-controlled phase III trial of immunologic therapy with sipuleucel-T (APC8015) in patients with metastatic, asymptomatic hormone refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(19):3089–94.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.04.5252.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kantoff PW, Higano C, Shore ND, Berger ER, Small EJ, Penson DF, et al. Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(5):411–22.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1001294.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Beer TM, Kwon ED, Drake CG, Fizazi K, Logothetis C, Gravis G, et al. Randomized, double-blind, phase III trial of ipilimumab versus placebo in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with metastatic chemotherapy-naive castration-resistant prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(1):40–7.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.69.1584.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kantoff PW, Scheutz TJ, Blumenstein BA, Glode LM, Bilhartz DL, Wyand M, et al. Overall survival analysis of a phase II randomized controlled trial of a Poxviral-based PSA-targeted immunotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(7):1099–105.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.25.0597.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nilsson S, Larsen RH, Fosså SD, Balteskard L, Borch KW, Westlin JE, et al. First clinical experience with alpha-emitting radium-223 in the treatment of skeletal metastases. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11(12):4451–9.  https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-2244.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hoskin P, Sartor O, O'Sullivan JM, Johannessen DC, Helle SI, Logue J, et al. Efficacy and safety of radium-223 dichloride in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases, with or without previous docetaxel use: a prespecified subgroup analysis from the randomised, double-blind, phase 3 ALSYMPCA trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(12):1397–406.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70474-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    • Parker CC, Coleman RE, Sartor O, Vogelzang NJ, Bottomley D, Heinrich D, et al. Three-year safety of Radium-223 dichloride in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases from phase 3 randomized alpharadin in symptomatic prostate cancer trial. Eur Urol. 2017;73(3):427–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2017.06.021. Good follow-up about which patients should be considered for Radium treatment. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shore ND, Tutrone RF, Mariados NF, Nordquist LT, Mehlhaff BA, Steere KJ, et al. eRADicAte: a prospective evaluation combining Radium-223 dichloride and abiraterone acetate plus prednisone in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Clin Genirourin Cancer. 2018;16(1):149–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2017.10.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Saad F, Charles J, Gillessen S, Heidenreich A, Heinrich D, Gratt J, et al. Radium-223 and concomitant therapies in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: an international, early access, open-label, single-arm phase 3b trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010;17(9):1306–3016.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30173-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Etchebehere EC, Milton DR, Araujo JC, Swanston NM, Macapinlac HA, Rohren EM. Factors affecting (223)Ra therapy: clinical experience after 532 cycles from a single institution. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;43(1):8–20.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-015-3185-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sweeney CJ, Chen YH, Carducci M, Liu G, Jarrard DF, Eisenberger M, et al. Chemohormonal therapy in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(8):737–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2016.12.021.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Oudard S, Kramer G, Caffo O, Creppy L, Loriot Y, Hansen S, et al. Docetaxel rechallenge after an initial good response in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2015;115(5):744–52.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bju.12845.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Thibault C, Eymard JC, Birtle A, Krainer M, Baciarello G, Fléchon A, Le Moulec S, Spaeth D, Laguerre B, Caffo O, Deville JL, Beuzeboc P, Hasbini A, Gross-Goupil M, Helissey C, Bennamoun M, Hardy-Bessard AC, Oudard S. Efficacy of cabazitaxel rechallenge in heavily treated patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer 2018: Doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2018.03.008, 97, 41, 48.
  38. 38.
    Azad AA, Leibowitz-Amit R, Eigl BJ, Lester R, Wells JC, Murray RN, et al. A retrospective, Canadian multi-center study examining the impact of prior response to abiraterone acetate on efficacy of docetaxel in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Prostate. 2014;74(15):1544–450.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pros.22872.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Aggarwal R, Harris A, Formaker C, Small EJ, Molina A, Griffin TW, et al. Response to subsequent docetaxel in a patient cohort with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after abiraterone acetate treatment. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2014;12(5):167–72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2014.03.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fizazi K, Scher HI, Molina A, Logothetis CJ, Chi KN, Jones RJ, et al. Abiraterone acetate for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: final overall survival analysis of the COU-AA-301 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(10):983–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70379-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Scher HI, Fizazi K, Saad F, Taplin ME, Sternberg CN, Miller K, et al. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(13):1187–97.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1207506.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    de Bono JS, Chowdhury S, Feyerabend T, Elliott T, Grande E, Melhem-Bertrandt A, et al. Safety of enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with abiraterone acetate plus prednisone for ≥24 weeks in Europe. Eur Urol. 2017;74:37–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2017.07.035. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Azad AA, Eigl BJ, Murray RN, Kollmannsberger C, Chi KN. Efficacy of enzalutamide following abiraterone acetate in chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. Eur Urol. 2015;67(1):23–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.06.045.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Suzman DL, Luber B, Schweizer MT, Nadal R, Antonarakis ES. Clinical activity of enzalutamide versus docetaxel in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after abiraterone. Prostate. 2014;74(13):1278–95.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pros.22844.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Al Nakouzi N, Le Moulec S, Albigès L, Wang C, Beuzeboc P, Gross-Goupil M, et al. Cabazitaxel remains active in patients progressing after docetaxel followed by novel androgen receptor pathway targeted therapies. Eur Urol. 2015;68(2):228–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.04.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pezaro CJ, Omlin AG, Altavilla A, Lorente D, Ferraldeschi R, Bianchini D, et al. Activity of cabazitaxel in castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel and next-generation endocrine agents. Eur Urol. 2014;66(3):459–65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2013.11.044.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    • Francini E, Fiaschi AI, Petrioli R, Bianco V, Laera L, Francini F, et al. Abiraterone in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer: final analysis of overall survival. Anti-Cancer Drugs. 2015;26(8):910–1.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0000000000000258. Options for heavily treated patients in this disease state. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Davies RS, Smith C, Lester JF. Third-line enzalutamide following docetaxel and abiraterone in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Anticancer Res. 2016;36(4):1799–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fizazi K, Scher HI, Miller K, Basch E, Sternberg CN, Cella D, et al. Effect of enzalutamide on time to first skeletal-related event, pain, and quality of life in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: results from the randomised, phase 3 AFFIRM trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(10):1147–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70303-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    • Caffo O, De Giorgi U, Fratino L, Alesini D, Zagonel V, Facchini G, et al. Clinical outcomes of castration-resistant prostate cancer treatments administered as third or fourth line following failure of docetaxel and other second-line treatment: results of an Italian multicentre study. Eur Urol. 2015;68(1):147–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2014.10.014. Also interesting information for patients who had failed multiple treatments. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ramakrishnan Geethakumari P, Schiewer MJ, Knudsen KE, Kelly WK. PARP inhibitors in prostate Cancer. Curr Treat Options in Oncol. 2017;18(6):131–41.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11864-017-0480-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mateo J, Carreira S, Sandhu S, Miranda S, Mossop H, Perez-Lopez R, et al. DNA-repair defects and olaparib in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(18):1697–708.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1506859.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

Personalised recommendations