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Current Urology Reports

, 16:22 | Cite as

Preoperative Imaging for Staging Bladder Cancer

  • Maxim J. McKibben
  • Michael E. Woods
New Imaging Techniques (A Rastinehad and S Rais-Bahrami, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on New Imaging Techniques

Abstract

Accurate preoperative staging of bladder cancer is essential in determining the extent of disease and optimal treatment. The current gold standard of transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by computed tomography (CT) imaging provides excellent staging specificity, but often understages the disease, leading to pathologic upstaging and adverse outcomes in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. Newer imaging modalities, such as multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) combined with CT or MR provides promising imaging alternatives which may improve accuracy of staging both local and distant disease.

Keywords

Bladder cancer Cancer staging Computed tomography Magnetic resonance imaging PET Understaging 

Abbreviations

MIBC

Muscle-invasive bladder cancer

NMIBC

Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

MR

Magnetic resonance

DCE-MR

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR

DWI-MR

Diffusion-weighted image MR

CT

Computed tomography

PET

Positron emission tomography

NSF

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

TURBT

Transurethral resection of bladder tumor

2D US

Two-dimensional ultrasound

3D US

Three-dimensional ultrasound

CE-US

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound

USPIO

Ultra-small super-paramagnetic particles of iron oxide

ADC

Apparent diffusion coefficient

FDG

18F-fluorodeoxyglucose

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

ROC

Receiver operating characteristic

Notes

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Maxim J. McKibben and Dr. Michael E. Woods each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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