Preoperative Imaging for Staging Bladder Cancer
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Accurate preoperative staging of bladder cancer is essential in determining the extent of disease and optimal treatment. The current gold standard of transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by computed tomography (CT) imaging provides excellent staging specificity, but often understages the disease, leading to pathologic upstaging and adverse outcomes in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. Newer imaging modalities, such as multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) combined with CT or MR provides promising imaging alternatives which may improve accuracy of staging both local and distant disease.
KeywordsBladder cancer Cancer staging Computed tomography Magnetic resonance imaging PET Understaging
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer
Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR
Diffusion-weighted image MR
Positron emission tomography
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis
Transurethral resection of bladder tumor
- 2D US
- 3D US
Ultra-small super-paramagnetic particles of iron oxide
Apparent diffusion coefficient
Glomerular filtration rate
Receiver operating characteristic
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Maxim J. McKibben and Dr. Michael E. Woods each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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