Percutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation and Sacral Neuromodulation: an Update
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Neuromodulation is an important treatment modality for a variety of pelvic floor disorders. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) and sacral neuromodulation (SNM) are currently the two approved methods for delivering this therapy. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is a minimally invasive office-based procedure that has shown efficacy in the treatment of overactive bladder, fecal incontinence, and pelvic pain. It has the advantage of minimal side effects but is limited by the need for patients to make weekly office visits to receive the series of treatments. Sacral neuromodulation uses an implanted device that stimulates the S3 nerve root and can improve symptoms of overactive bladder, non-obstructive urinary retention, fecal incontinence, and pelvic pain. This paper will review the most recent literature regarding this topic and discuss their advantages and limitations and recent innovations in their use.
KeywordsNeuromodulation Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation Sacral neuromodulation InterStim® Overactive bladder Urgency urinary incontinence
Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation
Urgency urinary incontinence
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Priyanka Gupta, Dr. Michael J. Ehlert, and Dr. Larry T. Sirls each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Dr. Kenneth M. Peters declares personal fees from Medtronic and Uroplasty.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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