The Role of Inflammation in Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and Its Potential Impact on Medical Therapy
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A chronic prostatic inflammation seems to play a crucial role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) pathogenesis and progression. Therefore, inflammation could represent a new potential target for medical therapy of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to BPH (LUTS/BPH). This review article analyzes the evidence supporting the role of inflammation in the onset and progression of BPH, and it assesses the potential impact of previous mechanisms on medical therapy of LUTS/BPH. Literature data support the role of inflammation as a relevant factor in the pathogenesis of BPH. Indeed, several data favour the role of infiltrating lymphocytes in the development and progression of prostate adenoma as an effect of a self-maintaining remodeling process. Although available drugs commonly used in the treatment of LUTS/BPH do not exhibit an anti-inflammatory activity, it seems to be obvious considering the inflammation as a new target in the treatment of LUTS/BPH. Drugs currently investigated for the treatment of prostatic inflammation include the hexanic lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and vitamin D receptor agonists.
KeywordsInflammation Lower urinary tract symptoms Benign prostatic hyperplasia Medical therapy
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Conflict of Interest
Prof. Vincenzo Ficarra reports a grant and personal fees from Pierre Fabre.
Prof. Riccardo Bartoletti reports a grant and personal fees from Takeda Company and Pierre Fabre.
Dr. Marta Rossanese, Dr. Michele Zazzara, Dr. Gianluca Giannarini, Dr. Maria Abbinante, Prof. Vincenzo Mirone, and Dr. Francesco Scaglione each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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