Emerging Endoscopic Imaging Technologies for Bladder Cancer Detection
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Modern urologic endoscopy is the result of continuous innovations since the early nineteenth century. White-light cystoscopy is the primary strategy for identification, resection, and local staging of bladder cancer. While highly effective, white light cystoscopy has several well-recognized shortcomings. Recent advances in optical imaging technologies and device miniaturization hold the potential to improve bladder cancer diagnosis and resection. Photodynamic diagnosis and narrow band imaging are the first to enter the clinical arena. Confocal laser endomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy, UV autofluorescence, and others have shown promising clinical and pre-clinical feasibility. We review their mechanisms of action, highlight their respective advantages, and propose future directions.
KeywordsOptical imaging Fluorescence imaging In vivo microscopy Multimodal imaging Cystoscopy Bladder cancer
The authors thank Kathleen Mach for critical review of the manuscript. A.L. is supported by the Stanford University School of Medicine MedScholars Research Fellowship. J.C.L. is supported in part by grant R01 CA160986 from the National Cancer Institute.
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Aristeo Lopez declares no potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article.
Dr. Joseph C. Liao received a research grant from the National Institute of Health (NIH). Dr. Liao received travel support from Mauna Kea Technologies, including expenses covered or reimbursed, and payment for the development of educational presentations from Storz.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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