Current Urology Reports

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 124–129 | Cite as

Update on use of Enhanced Imaging to Optimize Lymphadenectomy in Patients Undergoing Minimally Invasive Surgery for Urothelial Cancer of the Bladder

  • Lukas Lusuardi
  • Günter Janetschek
Minimally Invasive Surgery (V Bird, Section Editor)


The most commonly used imaging modalities for diagnostic investigation of bladder carcinoma are contrast-enhanced computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. More recently, radioisotope and fluorescence staining are being used before, or even during, open or laparoscopic surgery. We report recent results obtained with these imaging modalities and their limitations.


Bladder cancer Imaging Lymphatic pathway Computed tomography Magnetic resonance Lymphoscintigraphy 



No conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urology and AndrologyParacelsus Medical University SalzburgSalzburgAustria

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