Update on use of Enhanced Imaging to Optimize Lymphadenectomy in Patients Undergoing Minimally Invasive Surgery for Urothelial Cancer of the Bladder
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The most commonly used imaging modalities for diagnostic investigation of bladder carcinoma are contrast-enhanced computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. More recently, radioisotope and fluorescence staining are being used before, or even during, open or laparoscopic surgery. We report recent results obtained with these imaging modalities and their limitations.
KeywordsBladder cancer Imaging Lymphatic pathway Computed tomography Magnetic resonance Lymphoscintigraphy
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