Current Urology Reports

, Volume 13, Issue 5, pp 356–362 | Cite as

Evaluation and Management of Outlet Obstruction in Women Without Anatomical Abnormalities on Physical Exam or Cystoscopy

Voiding Dysfunction and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (GH Badlani and HB Goldman, Section Editors)


Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women can be either anatomic or functional. Anatomic causes for BOO are often readily apparent by history and physical exam. On the other hand, causes for functional obstruction, including dysfunctional voiding, primary bladder neck obstruction, and detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia, are more difficult to establish. Because the appropriate treatment for functional obstruction drastically varies according to etiology, making an accurate diagnosis is paramount. Videourodynamics, interpreted in the context of individual clinical symptoms, remains the diagnostic gold standard in women with functional obstruction.


Dysfunctional voiding Primary bladder neck obstruction Detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia Urodynamics Women Functional obstruction 


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Duane Hickling
    • 1
  • Margarita Aponte
    • 1
  • Victor Nitti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyNew York University Langone Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

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