An Update on Phthalates and Male Reproductive Development and Function
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Phthalates are part of a class of high-volume industrial chemicals used ubiquitously in health care as well as household products. Biomarker studies have confirmed the widespread presence of these chemicals in both humans and animals. As a class, phthalates have been implicated in diseases and birth anomalies of the genitourinary tract including hypospadias, testis anomalies, and subfertility. This article will discuss the current data surrounding these chemicals and their association with genital anomalies including genital anomalies and infertility.
KeywordsPhthalates Anogenital distance Infertility Hypospadias Cryptorchism Endocrine disruptor Birth anomalies Genitourinary tract Testis anomalies Subfertility
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