Recent Advances in Treatment of Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma
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GC (cisplatin and gemcitabine) and MVAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, Adriamycin [doxorubicin], and cisplatin) have been the standard systemic chemotherapy in advanced urothelial carcinoma. These regimens have shown significant response rates in this patient population. Nevertheless, disease does recur with most patients who unfortunately do succumb to the disease. Research efforts are focused in several different areas of therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Further efforts include those in improving understanding of the molecular biology of urothelial carcinoma which may lead development of biomarkers that may enhance therapeutic index. This paper reviews recent advances in the treatment and ongoing study of molecular biology of urothelial carcinoma.
KeywordsUrothelial carcinoma Chemotherapy Targeted therapy Immunotherapy Biomarker
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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