Biofeedback in the Management of Urinary Continence in Children
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Significant progress has been made over the past 15 years regarding the development of bladder control and the evaluation and management of pediatric voiding dysfunction. Incontinence is a problem of significant social consequence that is commonly due to dysfunctional voiding (ie, discoordination between the detrusor and the external sphincter). Biofeedback was introduced in 1979 but was relatively forgotten until the late 1990 s. Nonanimated biofeedback relates sphincter activity to electromyographic activity as reflected as tracing on a computer screen or auditory feedback. This successful modality was exclusively available until recently when animated biofeedback became available, allowing for a more rapid grasp of the physiologic event to be modulated. Biofeedback has been shown to be very effective in children to correct incontinence secondary to dysfunctional voiding, as well as in treating giggle incontinence and to help resolve vesicoureteral reflux.