Management of pediatric stone disease
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Pediatric and adult stone disease differs in both presentation and treatment. Children can present with a wide range of symptoms varying from flank pain and hematuria to nonspecific symptoms such as irritability and nausea. Although ultrasonography and plain radiographs can play a role in diagnosis and follow-up, the standard of care for a child who presents to the emergency department with a history suggestive of a stone is noncontrast spiral CT. Because there is a high yield in identifying predisposing factors in children with urolithiasis and high recurrence rates, metabolic evaluation of every child with a urinary stone should be undertaken and medical treatment should be given if necessary. With recent advances in technology, stone management has changed from an open surgical approach to less invasive procedures such as extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and endoscopic techniques. Herein, we present a review of the recent literature and offer our own preferences to approaches for treatment.
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