Current Urology Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 6, pp 467–471 | Cite as

Testosterone, diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome



Metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin insensitivity, central obesity dyslipidemia, and hypertension. It is recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in men; by the time metabolic syndrome is diagnosed, however, most men already have entrenched cardiovascular disease. A reliable early warning sign is needed to alert physicians to those at risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Low serum testosterone level has emerged as a reliable prognosticator of metabolic syndrome in men whose testosterone deficiency is genetic (Klinefelter syndrome), iatrogenic following surgery for testicular cancer, pharmacologically induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone during prostate cancer treatment, or a natural consequence of aging. One third of men with type 2 diabetes mellitus are now recognized as testosterone deficient. Emerging evidence suggests that testosterone therapy may be able to reverse some aspects of metabolic syndrome.


Testosterone Metabolic Syndrome Serum Testosterone Free Testosterone Serum Testosterone Level 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineBeth Israel HospitalBostonUSA

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