Dyspareunia in Women: Updates in Mechanisms and Current/Novel Therapies

  • Salvatore CarusoEmail author
  • Caterina Monaco
Female Sexual Dysfunction and Disorders (T Lorenz and R Nappi, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Female Sexual Dysfunction and Disorders
  2. Topical Collection on Female Sexual Dysfunction and Disorders


Purpose of Review

Dyspareunia could influence negatively the sexuality of pre- and postmenopausal women. Genital pain can be cause for disturbing sexual desire. We conducted a review to describe interventions to address dyspareunia.

Recent Findings

We reviewed 64 articles, based on studies concerning definitions of dyspareunia, genital sexual pain, different causes in pre/postmenopausal women, physical examination, management by age groups, and current/novel therapies. Evidence was drawn from systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled studies, and case-control-studies, and from non-systematic reviews.


All included studies showed a significant reduction of dyspareunia after specific treatment. Women who received hormonal or non-hormonal medication, or physical therapy, had a better quality of sexual life. Hormonal and physical therapies show faster efficacy than non-hormonal therapies. In addition, pharmacological, psychological, and sexological integrated therapies seem to be more effective than single treatments.


Dyspareunia Endometriosis Estrogen therapy Female sexual disorders Genital sexual pain Genitourinary syndrome Hormonal-non hormonal therapies Ospemifene 



The authors wish to thank the Scientific Bureau of the University of Catania for language support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of General Surgery and Medical Surgical Specialties, Group of Sexual ResearchUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly
  2. 2.Gynecological Clinic of the Policlinico UniversitarioCataniaItaly

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