Current Sexual Health Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 240–248 | Cite as

Non-Medical, Medical, and Surgical Approaches for the Treatment of Provoked Vestibulodynia

  • Caroline F. Pukall
  • Leia S. Mitchell
  • Andrew T. GoldsteinEmail author
Male Sexual Dysfunction and Disorders (AW Pastuszak and TS Köhler, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Male Sexual Dysfunction and Disorders


Though a large number of women suffer from vulvar pain and dyspareunia, many clinicians feel that they lack the knowledge to adequately evaluate, diagnose, and treat women with vulvovaginal pain. This review examines the new International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD)/International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health (ISSWSH)/International Pelvic Pain Society (IPPS) terminology of vulvar pain and vulvodynia, reviews a diagnostic algorithm that can help to differentiate between different types of vulvar pain, and discusses non-medical, medical, and surgical treatment options for provoked vestibulodynia (PVD; vulvodynia confined to the vestibule). The combination of this new terminology, diagnostic algorithm, and potential treatments will allow for more appropriately targeted treatments for women with PVD.


Vestibulodynia Vulvodynia Vulva Vulvar vestibulitis Dyspareunia 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Andrew Goldstein has received research funding from Bayer and Palatin and is on the medical advisory boards for Strategic Sciences and Technologies and Emotional Brains. Caroline F. Pukall and Leia S. Mitchell declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caroline F. Pukall
    • 1
  • Leia S. Mitchell
    • 2
  • Andrew T. Goldstein
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Center for Vulvovaginal DisordersWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyThe George Washington University School of MedicineWashingtonUSA

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