Cardiovascular and Metabolic Comorbidities in Rheumatoid Arthritis
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Purpose of the Review
An increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is reported. The absolute cardiovascular risk in RA patients is higher than in the general population, and although the RA prognosis has gradually improved, premature cardiovascular (CV) mortality remains a matter of fact. The purpose of this review is to shed light on CV and metabolic involvement in RA, with the aim of defining its best management.
Multiple lines of evidence have revealed common mechanisms behind inflammatory and CV diseases and clarified the metabolic and CV pathways involved in RA and the effects of different pharmacological treatments.
CV risk assessment should be mandatory in all RA patients, taking into account the impact of both diseases on patient’s prognosis. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is the best management, and rheumatologists, cardiologists, and general practitioners must work together to significantly improve outcome and quality of life in RA patients. Future research could investigate the potential beneficial effects of a more aggressive pharmacological treatment of CV and metabolic risk factors.
KeywordsRheumatoid arthritis Cardiovascular diseases Metabolic diseases Therapy
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interests.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
The authors received no specific funding for this work.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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