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Cardiovascular and Metabolic Comorbidities in Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • Silvio Romano
  • Elisa Salustri
  • Piero Ruscitti
  • Francesco Carubbi
  • Maria Penco
  • Roberto GiacomelliEmail author
Rheumatoid Arthritis (L Moreland, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Rheumatoid Arthritis

Abstract

Purpose of the Review

An increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is reported. The absolute cardiovascular risk in RA patients is higher than in the general population, and although the RA prognosis has gradually improved, premature cardiovascular (CV) mortality remains a matter of fact. The purpose of this review is to shed light on CV and metabolic involvement in RA, with the aim of defining its best management.

Recent Findings

Multiple lines of evidence have revealed common mechanisms behind inflammatory and CV diseases and clarified the metabolic and CV pathways involved in RA and the effects of different pharmacological treatments.

Summary

CV risk assessment should be mandatory in all RA patients, taking into account the impact of both diseases on patient’s prognosis. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is the best management, and rheumatologists, cardiologists, and general practitioners must work together to significantly improve outcome and quality of life in RA patients. Future research could investigate the potential beneficial effects of a more aggressive pharmacological treatment of CV and metabolic risk factors.

Keywords

Rheumatoid arthritis Cardiovascular diseases Metabolic diseases Therapy 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interests.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no specific funding for this work.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvio Romano
    • 1
  • Elisa Salustri
    • 1
  • Piero Ruscitti
    • 2
  • Francesco Carubbi
    • 2
  • Maria Penco
    • 1
  • Roberto Giacomelli
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Cardiology, Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences|University of L’AquilaL’AquilaItaly
  2. 2.Rheumatology, Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical SciencesUniversity of L’AquilaL’AquilaItaly

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