Expression and Metabolomic Profiling in Axial Spondyloarthritis

  • Darren D. O’RiellyEmail author
  • Guangju Zhai
  • Proton Rahman
Spondyloarthritis (M Khan, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Spondyloarthritis


Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review is to highlight recent evidence with respect to expression and metabolomic profiling in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) that included ankylosing spondylitis (AS).

Recent Findings

AxSpA is not only characterized by the strongest genetic contribution for any complex rheumatic disease but is also influenced by environmental and immunological factors. Large-scale association-based studies have identified over 100 genetic variants contributing to 30% of the genetic risk of ankylosing spondylitis. Recent studies in global expression and metabolomic profiling appear to highlight common themes despite differences in tissues, populations, techniques, and relative paucity of patients in many of these studies.


Expression studies support a role for immunomodulation and bone remodeling in the pathogenesis and progression of axSpA/AS, while metabolomic studies implicate the importance of the intestinal microbial metabolism as well as fat and choline metabolic pathways in AS.


Spondyloarthritis Ankylosing spondylitis Genomics Transcriptomics MicroRNA Metabolomics 



Adenosine A1 receptor


Adenosine A2A receptor


Adenosine A2B receptor


Anthrax toxin receptor 2


Ankylosing spondylitis


Autophagy related 16 like 1


Axial spondyloarthritis


Assessment of spondyloarthritis international society


Ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score


Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index


Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index


Bone mineral density


Bone morphogenetic protein


Bone morphogenetic protein 2


Bone morphogenetic protein 4


Bone morphogenetic protein 7


Brix domain-containing protein 5


C-reactive protein


Carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks


Dickkopf-related protein 1


Dickkopf-related protein 3


Differentially expressed genes


Epidermal growth factor receptor


Enthesitis-related arthritis


Erythrocyte sedimentation rate


Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry


Gene ontology


Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta


Genome-wide association studies


Human leukocyte antigen B


Heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1


Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase




Indian hedgehog




Interleukin-1 beta


Interleukin-2 receptor alpha


Interleukin-2 receptor beta










Interleukin-23 receptor


Immunity related GTPase M


Long non-coding RNA


Integral membrane protein 2A


Janus kinase


Juvenile idiopathic arthritis


Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes


Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL2


Kremen protein 1


Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry


Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7


Major histocompatibility complex


Matrix gla protein


Macrophage migration inhibitory factor


Micro-ribonucleic acid


Matrix metalloproteinase-2


Messenger ribonucleic acid


Matrix metalloproteinase-1


Matrix metalloproteinase-3


Mass spectrometry


Modified stoke ankylosing spondylitis spinal score


Nuclear factor kappa-B p105 subunit


Nuclear magnetic resonance


Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 2






Orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis


Peptidyl arginine deiminase 4


Peripheral blood mononuclear cells


Principal component analysis


Programmed cell death protein 1


Programmed cell death 4


Partial least squares discriminant analysis


Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4


Rheumatic arthritis


Ribonucleic acid sequencing


SMAD family member 5


SMAD family member 7


Single nucleotide polymorphism


Signal transducer and activator of transcription


Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1


Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4




T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing 4


Toll-like receptor 4


Toll-like receptor 5


Tumor necrosis factor


Tumor necrosis factor-alpha


Tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 3


TNF superfamily member 10


Uncarboxylated matrix gla protein


Vascular endothelial growth factor A


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Rahman reports personal fees from Abbott, AbbVie, Amgen, Celgene, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, and UCB grants and personal fees from Janssen, outside the submitted work.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Competing Interests

PR is a consultant to multiple pharmaceutical companies dealing with biologic agents including Abbott, AbbVie, Amgen, Celgene, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, and UCB,


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darren D. O’Rielly
    • 1
    Email author
  • Guangju Zhai
    • 1
  • Proton Rahman
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine and GeneticsMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada

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