Update on Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Ten Topics in 2017

  • Ilaria Cavazzana
  • Laura Andreoli
  • Maarteen Limper
  • Franco Franceschini
  • Angela Tincani
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (G Tsokos, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus


Purpose of Review

This review focuses on new clinical aspects of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in the last 5 years.

Recent Findings

The pathogenesis of APS is related to endothelial activation by mechanisms other than autoantibody-mediated massive coagulation. These include Toll-like receptors, the m-TORC pathway, and neutrophil activation, inducing an uncontrolled inflammatory cascade. Given these new pathogenetic hypotheses, the treatment of APS could be directed towards a fine balance between anticoagulation and immunomodulation. A hot topic is how to consider asymptomatic antiphospholipid (aPL) carriers, with or without systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), during pregnancy, or during their life in general: to treat or not to treat? New findings on long-standing APS, regarding survival, comorbidities, and evolution in other autoimmune conditions, have become available, including new insights into aPL as potential risk factors for damage accrual in SLE and potential implications on neuropsychological involvement of children exposed to maternal aPL in utero.


This review summarizes recent findings on the management, treatment, and prevention of patients affected by APS or with aPL.


Anti-phospholipid antibodies Thrombosis’ pathogenesis Asymptomatic carrier APS treatment Obstetric APS Neuropsychological development 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ilaria Cavazzana
    • 1
  • Laura Andreoli
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maarteen Limper
    • 3
    • 4
  • Franco Franceschini
    • 1
  • Angela Tincani
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Spedali CiviliBresciaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Experimental SciencesUniversity of BresciaBresciaItaly
  3. 3.Division of Rheumatology and Clinical ImmunologyUtrecht Medical CenterUtrechtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Division Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical ImmunologyUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtthe Netherlands

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