Emerging Therapies in Antiphospholipid Syndrome

  • Danieli Andrade
  • Maria TektonidouEmail author
Antiphospholipid Syndrome (S Zuily, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Antiphospholipid Syndrome


Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a hypercoagulable state characterized by arterial and venous thromboses and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Although warfarin remains the main therapeutic choice in APS, there is still concern about its efficacy, safety, and patient compliance. Patients with refractory APS to conventional therapy as well as patients with non-classical manifestations of APS may have alternative treatment approaches. APS pathogenesis has been further elucidated over the past years identifying new molecules as potential new treatment targets. This review summarizes available data from in vitro and animal models and clinical studies on the role of new potential treatment approaches including new oral anticoagulants and immunoregulatory agents: direct thrombin or factor Xa inhibitors, hydroxychloroquine, statins, B cell inhibition, complement inhibition, peptide therapy, nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated kinase inhibitors, defibrotide, abciximab, mTOR inhibitor, and other potential targets. Large multicenter prospective studies of well-characterized APS patients are needed to assess the efficacy and safety profile of these potential treatment alternatives.


Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) Pathogenesis Warfarin Oral anticoagulants New treatments Immunoregulatory agents In vitro studies Animal models Clinical studies 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rheumatology DepartmentUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.First Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Joint Academic Rheumatology ProgrammeNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece

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