Current Rheumatology Reports

, 15:306 | Cite as

Nonpharmacological Treatment of Pain in Rheumatic Diseases and Other Musculoskeletal Pain Conditions

  • Natoshia Raishevich Cunningham
  • Susmita Kashikar-ZuckEmail author
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Chronic Pain


Pain is a complex phenomenon affected by biological, psychological, and social factors. Treatment of pain is most effective when using a multidisciplinary approach consisting of a careful selection of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based upon disease factors, pain characteristics, psychological coping abilities, and lifestyle factors. In this review we focus on research-based evidence for non-pharmacological intervention including psychological intervention, physical exercise, patient education, and complementary approaches for pain management for patients with rheumatic diseases and common musculoskeletal pain conditions, such as low back pain. The vast majority of research studies on chronic pain conditions are focused on adults but pediatric studies are also reviewed wherever possible, to give the reader a more inclusive view of non-pharmacological approaches for pain management across the lifespan.


Nonpharmacological treatment Rheumatic disease Rheumatoid arthritis Pain Osteoarthritis Fibromyalgia Lower back pain Cognitive–behavioral therapy Exercise Patient education Complementary and alternative medicine 



No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natoshia Raishevich Cunningham
    • 1
  • Susmita Kashikar-Zuck
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical PsychologyCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA

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