Current Rheumatology Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 6, pp 459–468 | Cite as

Ocular complications of childhood rheumatic diseases: Uveitis



Ocular involvement is common in pediatric rheumatologic diseases, supporting the concept that these conditions cannot be understood simply as isolated entities, but rather as multisystem disorders. The reasons for the breach of the eye-brain barrier and the targeting of the usually well-shielded eye during a pan-inflammatory process remains unclear. Pediatric rheumatologists should become familiar with these ocular disorders, because as important members of the treatment team, they manage more serious cases of inflammatory eye disease. A close collaboration between the treating rheumatologist and the ophthalmologist is essential to prevent potentially devastating outcomes. Therapeutic interventions such as topical steroids, systemic immunosuppressants, and biologics must balance the necessity of controlling ocular inflammation and the adverse effects of these treatments on a growing child.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Petty RE: Ocular complications of rheumatic diseases of childhood. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1990, 259:51–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thadani SM, Foster CS: Treatment of ocular inflammation in children. Paediatr Drugs 2004, 6:289–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Becker MD, Smith JR, Max R, Fiehn C: Management of sight-threatening uveitis: new therapeutic options. Drugs 2005, 65:497–519. Comprehensive review of uveitis treatment options.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murray PI, Clay CD, Mappin C, Salmon M: Molecular analysis of resolving immune responses in uveitis. Clin Exp Immunol 1999, 117:455–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Muhaya M, Calder VL, Towler H, et al.: Characterization of phenotype and cytokine profiles of T cell lines derived from the vitreous humor in ocular inflammation in man. Clin Exp Immunol 1999, 116:410–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Calder VL, Shaer B, Muhaya M, et al.: Increased CD4+ expression and decreased IL-10 in the anterior chamber in idiopathic uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999, 40:2019–2024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Muhaya M, Calder V, Towler HM, et al.: Characterization of T cells and cytokines in the aqueous humour (AH) in patients with Fuchs’ heterochromic cyclitis (FHC) and idiopathic anterior uveitis (IAU). Clin Exp Immunol 1998, 111:123–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lacomba MS, Martin CM, Gallardo Galera JM, et al.: Aqueous humor and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha in clinical uveitis. Ophthalmic Res 2001, 33:251–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Noma H, Funatsu H, Yamasaki M, et al.: Pathogenesis of macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion and intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6. Am J Ophthalmol 2005, 140:256–261. Excellent review about the pathogenesis of inflammatory eye disease.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lacomba MS, Martin CM, Chamond RR, et al.: Aqueous and serum interferon gamma, interleukin (IL) 2, IL-4, and IL-10 in patients with uveitis. Arch Ophthal 2000, 118:768–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    El-Shabrawi Y, Livir-Rallatos C, Christen W, et al.: High levels of interleukin-12 in the aqueous humor and vitreous of patients with uveitis. Ophthalmology 1998, 105:1659–1663.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    de Boer JH, Hack CE, Verhoeven AJ, et al.: Chemoattractant and neutrophil degranulation activities related to interleukin-8 in vitreous fluid in uveitis and vitreo-retinal disorders. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1993, 34:3376–3385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Perez VL, Papaliodis GN, Chu D, et al.: Elevated levels of interleukin 6 in the vitreous fluid of patients with pars planitis and posterior uveitis: the Massachusetts eye & ear experience and review of previous studies. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2004, 12:193–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Franks WA, Limb GA, Stanford MR, et al.: Cytokines in human intraocular inflammation. Curr Eye Res 1992, 11(Suppl):187–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hooks JJ, Chan CC, Detrick B: Identification of the lymphokines, interferon-gamma and interleukin-2, in inflammatory eye diseases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1988, 29:1444–1451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Norose K, Yano A, Wang XC, et al.: Dominance of activated T cells and interleukin-6 in aqueous humor in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994, 35:33–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gritz DC, Wong IG: Incidence and prevalence of uveitis in Northern California; the Northern California Epidemiology of Uveitis Study. Ophthalmology 2004, 111:491–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Darrell RW, Wagener HP, Kurland LT: Epidemiology of uveitis. Incidence and prevalence in a small urban community. Arch Ophthalmol 1962, 68:502–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Edelsten C, Reddy MA, Stanford MR, Graham EM: Visual loss associated with pediatric uveitis in english primary and referral centers. Am J Ophthalmol 2003, 135:676–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Paivonsalo-Hietanen T, Tuominen J, Saari KM: Uveitis in children: population-based study in Finland. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2000, 78:84–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cassidy JT, Sullivan DB, Petty RE: Clinical patterns of chronic iridocyclitis in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1977, 20(2 Suppl):224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chylack LT Jr: The ocular manifestations of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1977, 20:217–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zierhut M, Michels H, Stubiger N, et al.: Uveitis in children. Int Ophthalmol Clin 2005, 45:135–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kanski JJ, Shun-Shin GA: Systemic uveitis syndromes in childhood: an analysis of 340 cases. Ophthalmology 1984, 91:1247–1252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tugal-Tutkin I, Havrlikova K, Power WJ, et al.: Changing patterns in uveitis in childhood. Ophthalmology 1996, 103:375–383.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kotaniemi K, Kautiainen H, Karma A, Aho K: Occurrence of uveitis in recently diagnosed juvenile chronic arthritis: a prospective study. Ophthalmology 2001, 108:2071–2075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cassidy JT, Sullivan DB, Petty RE: Clinical patterns of chronic iridocyclitis in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1977, 20:224–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cassidy JT: Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In Kelley’s Textbook of Rheumatology. Edited by Kelley WN, Harris ED Jr, Ruddy S, Sledge CB. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2004:1189–1208.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cunningham ET Jr: Uveitis in children. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2000, 8:251–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stoffel PB, Sauvain MJ, von Vigier RO, et al.: Non-infectious causes of uveitis in 70 Swiss children. Acta Paediatr 2000, 89:955–958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kadayifcilar S, Eldem B, Tumer B: Uveitis in childhood. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2003, 40:335–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rosenberg AM: Uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: envisioning the future. J Rheumatol 2002, 29:2253–2255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dana MR, Merayo-Lloves J, Schaumberg DA, Foster CS: Visual outcomes prognosticators in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis-associated uveitis. Ophthalmology 1997, 104:236–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cabral DA, Petty RE, Malleson PN, et al.: Visual prognosis in children with chronic anterior uveitis and arthritis. J Rheumatol 21:2370–2375.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ozdal PC, Vianna RN, Deschenes J: Visual outcome of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis-associated uveitis in adults. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2005, 13:33–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Petty RE, Smith JR, Rosenbaum JT: Arthritis and uveitis in children. A pediatric rheumatology perspective. Am J Ophthalmol 2003, 135:879–884.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lyons JL, Rosenbaum JT: Uveitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease compared with uveitis associated with spondyloarthropathy. Arch Ophthal 1997, 115:61–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Linssen A, Rothova A, Valkenburg HA, et al.: The lifetime cumulative incidence of acute anterior uveitis in a normal population and its relation to ankylosing spondylitis and histocompatibility antigen HLA-B27. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1991, 32:2568–2578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Menkes CJ, Job-Deslandre C, Feldmann JL: Juvenileonset ankylosing spondylitis [in French]. Sem Hop 1984, 60:543–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jacobs JC, Berdon WE, Johnston AD: HLA-B27-associated spondyloarthritis and enthesopathy in childhood: clinical, pathologic, and radiographic observations in 58 patients. J Pediatr 1982, 100:521–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Burgos-Vargas R, Howard A, Ansell BM: Antibodies to peptidoglycan in juvenile onset ankylosing spondylitis and pauciarticular onset juvenile arthritis associated with chronic iridocyclitis. J Rheumatol 1986, 13:760–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Burns JC, Joffe L, Sargent RA, Glode MP: Anterior uveitis associated with Kawasaki syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis 1985, 4:258–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jacob JL, Polomeno RC, Chad Z, Lapointe N: Ocular manifestations of Kawasaki disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome). Can J Ophthalmol 1982, 17:199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ohno S, Miyajima T, Higuchi M, et al.: Ocular manifestations of Kawasaki’s disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome). Am J Ophthalmol 1982, 93:713–717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lapointe N, Chad Z, Lacroix J, et al.: Kawasaki disease: association with uveitis in seven patients. Pediatrics 1982, 69:376–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Offret H: Disciform keratitis and Kawasaki’s disease [in French]. J Fr Ophtalmol 1993, 16:114–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ocular manifestations of Kawasaki’s disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome).Am J Ophthalmol 1982, 93:713-717.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Burke MJ, Rennebohm RM: Eye involvement in Kawasaki disease. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1981, 18:7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Burke MJ, Rennebohm RM, Crowe W, Levinson JE: Follow-up ophthalmologic examinations in children with Kawasaki’s disease. Am J Ophthalmol 1981, 91:537–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rennebohm RM, Burke MJ, Crowe W, Levinson JE: Anterior uveitis in Kawasaki’s disease. Am J Ophthalmol 1981, 91:535–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tugal-Tutkun I, Onal S, Altan-Yaycioglu R, et al.: Uveitis in Behcet disease: an analysis of 880 patients. Am J Ophthalmol 2004, 138:373–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Laghmari M, Karim A, Allali F, et al.: Childhood Behcet’s disease: clinical and evolutive aspects. About 13 cases [in French]. J Fr Ophtalmol 2002, 25:904–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kim DK, Chang SN, Bang D, et al.: Clinical analysis of 40 cases of childhood-onset Behcet’s disease. Pediatr Dermatol 1994, 11:95–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pivetti-Pezzi P, Accorinti M, Abdulaziz MA, et al.: Behcets disease in children. Jpn J Ophthalmol 1995, 39:309–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hoover DL, Khan JA, Giangiacomo J: Pediatric ocular sarcoidosis. Surv Ophthalmol 1986, 30:215–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Obenauf CD, Shaw HE, Sydnor CF, Klintworth GK: Sarcoidosis and its ophthalmic manifestations. Am J Ophthalmol 1978, 86:648–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mar Sahn EE, Hampton MT, Garen PD, et al.: Preschool sarcoidosis masquerading as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: two case reports and a review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol 1990, 7:208–213.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Khan JA, Hoover DL, Giangiacomo J, Singsen BH: Orbital and childhood sarcoidosis. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1986, 23:190–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Henkind P: Sarcoidosis: an expanding ophthalmic horizon. J R Soc Med 1982, 75:153–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Karma A: Incidence of uveitis due to sarcoidosis in Northern Finland. Acta Ophthalmol 1979, 57:942–943.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Obenauf CD, Shaw HE, Sydnor CF, Klintworth GK: Sarcoidosis and its ophthalmic manifestations. Am J Ophthalmol 1978, 86:648–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bullen CL, Liesegang TJ, McDonald TJ, DeRemee RA: Ocular complications of Wegener’s granulomatosis. Ophthalmology 1983, 90:279–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Becker RW, Sohn RL, Poulik JM, Berguer R: Takayasu’s arteritis presenting as uveitis in a 5-year-old girl. Ann Vasc Surg 2005, 19:258–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    McDonald MA, Ojaimi E, Favilla I: Anterior uveitis in a child with Takayasu’s arteritis. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2004, 32:336–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kausman JY, Walker A, Piper S: Acute panuveitis and Takayasu’s arteritis. Arch Dis Child 2003, 88:938–939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Al-Mayouf SM, Al-Hemidan AI: Ocular manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus in children. Saudi Med J 2003, 24:964–966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chylack LT Jr: The ocular manifestations of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1977, 20:217–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Nguyen QD, Foster CS: Saving the vision of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis-associated uveitis. JAMA 1998, 280:1133–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jabs DA, Rosenbaum JT, Foster CS, et al.: Guidelines for the use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with ocular inflammatory disorders: recommendations of an expert panel. Am J Ophthalmol 2000, 130:492–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Samson CM, Waheed N, Baltatzis S, Foster CS: Methotrexate therapy for chronic noninfectious uveitis: analysis of a case series of 160 patients. Ophthalmology 2001, 108:1134–1139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Weiss AH, Wallace CA, Sherry DD: Methotrexate for resistant chronic uveitis in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Pediatr 1998, 133:266–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Malik AR, Pavesio C: The use of low dose methotrexate in children with chronic anterior and intermediate uveitis. Br J Ophthalmol 2005, 89:806–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Foeldvari I, Wierk A: Methotrexate is an effective treatment for chronic uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2005, 32:362–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Puchta J, Hattenbach LO, Baatz H: Intraocular levels of methotrexate after oral low-dose treatment in chronic uveitis. Ophthalmologica 2005, 219:54–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kilmartin DJ, Forrester JV, Dick AD: Cyclosporin A therapy in refractory non-infectious childhood uveitis. Br J Ophthalmol 1998, 82:737–742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Thorne JE, Jabs DA, Qazi FA, et al.: Rescue therapy with mycophenolate mofetil in refractory uveitis. Lancet 1998, 352:35–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lau CH, Comer M, Lightman S: Long-term efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil in the control of severe intraocular inflammation. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2003, 31:487–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kilmartin DJ, Forrester JV, Dick AD: Tacrolimus (FK506) in failed cyclosporin A therapy in endogenous posterior uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 1998, 6:101–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mochizuki M, Masuda K, Sakane T, et al.: A clinical trial of FK506 in refractory uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol 1993, 115:763–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gerloni V, Cimaz R, Gattinara M, et al.: Efficacy and safety profile of cyclosporin A in the treatment of juvenile chronic (idiopathic) arthritis. Results of a 10-year prospective study. Rheumatology 2001, 40:907–913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ramadan A, Nussenblatt R: Cytotoxic agents in ocular inflammation. Ophthalmol Clin North Am 1997, 10:377–387.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Andrasch RH, Pirofsky B, Burns RP: Immunosuppressive therapy for severe chronic uveitis. Arch Ophthalmol 1978, 96:247–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    De Vos AF, Klaren VNA, Kijlstra A: Expression of multiple cytokines and IL-1RA in the uvea and retina during endotoxin-induced uveitis in the rat. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994, 35:3873–3883.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nakamura S, Yamakawa T, Sugita M, et al.: The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the induction of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis in mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994, 35:3884–3889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Okada AA, Sakai J, Usui M, Mizuguchi J: Intraocular cytokine quantification of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis in rats. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 1998, 6:111–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Brito BE, O’Rourke LM, Pan Y, et al.: IL-1 and TNF receptor-deficient mice show decreased inflammation in an immune complex model of uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999, 40:2583–2589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kasner L, Chan CC, Whitcup SM, Gery I: The paradoxical effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in endotoxin-induced uveitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1993, 34:2911–2917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    De Vos AF, Van Haren MA, Verhagen C, et al.: Systemic anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody treatment exacerbates endotoxin-induced uveitis in the rat. Exp Eye Res 1995, 61:667–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Dick AD, McMenamin PG, Korner H, et al.: Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor activity minimizes target organ damage in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis despite quantitatively normal activated T cell traffic to the retina. Eur J Immunol 1996, 26:1018–1025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Reiff A, Takei S, Sadeghi S, et al.: Etanercept therapy in children with treatment-resistant uveitis. Arthritis Rheum 2001, 44:1411–1415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Reiff A: Long-term outcome of etanercept treatment in children with treatment refractory uveitis [letter]. Arthritis Rheum 2003, 48:2079–2080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Espada G, Meiorin SM, Weissbrod P, et al.: Etanercept therapy for JIA associated refractory uveitis. Arthritis Rheum 2005, 52(Suppl):S143.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    El-Shabrawi Y, Mangge H, Hermann J: Anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha treatment in chronic recurrent inflammation of the anterior segment of the eye in patients resistant to standard immunomodulatory treatment. Ann Rheum Dis 2003, 62:1243–1244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Joseph A, Raj D, Dua HS, et al.: Infliximab in the treatment of refractory posterior uveitis. Ophthalmology 2003, 110:1449–1453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Smith JR, Levinson RD, Holland GN, et al.: Differential efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibition in the management of inflammatory eye disease and associated rheumatic disease. Arthritis Rheum 2001, 45:252–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Smith JA, Thompson DJ, Whitcup SM, et al.: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial of etanercept for the treatment of uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2005, 53:18–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Reddy AR, Backhouse OC: Does etanercept induce uveitis? Br J Ophthalmol 2003, 87:925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Richards JC, Tay-Kearney ML, Murray K, Manners P: Infliximab for juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2005, 33:461–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    El-Shabrawi Y, Hermann J: Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy with infliximab as an alternative to corticosteroids in the treatment of human leukocyte antigen B27-associated acute anterior uveitis. Ophthalmology 2002, 109:2342–2346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rajaraman RT, Kimura Y, Li S, et al.: Retrospective case review of pediatric patients with uveitis treated with infliximab. Ophthalmology 2006, 113:308–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sfikakis PP, Theodossiadis PG, Katsiari CG, et al.: Effect of infliximab on sight threatening panuveitis in Behcet’s disease. Lancet 2001, 358:295–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Saurenmann RK, Levin AV, Rose JB, et al.: Tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors in the treatment of childhood uveitis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006, 45:982–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tynjälä P, Lindahl P, Honkanen V, et al.: Infliximab and etanercept in the treatment of refractory juvenile idiopathicarthritis associated uveitis. Arthritis Rheum 2006, in press.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schmeling H, Horneff G: Etanercept and uveitis in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Rheumatology 2005, 44:1008–1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dick AD, Meyer P, James T, et al.: Campath-1H therapy in refractory ocular inflammatory disease. Br J Ophthalmol 2000, 84:107–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Nussenblatt RB, Peterson JS, Foster CS, et al.: Initial evaluation of subcutaneous daclizumab treatments for noninfectious uveitis: a multicenter noncomparative interventional case series. Ophthalmology 2005, 112:764–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Papaliodis GN, Chu D, Foster CS: Treatment of ocular inflammatory disorders with daclizumab. Ophthalmology 2003, 110:786–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lim WK, Fujimoto C, Ursea R, et al.: Suppression of immune-mediated ocular inflammation in mice by interleukin 1 receptor antagonist administration. Arch Ophthalmol 2005, 123:957–963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Vinores SA, Chan CC, Vinores MA, et al.: Increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis upregulation of VEGF without neovascularization. J Neuroimmunol 1998, 89:43–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wallis RS, Ehlers S: Tumor necrosis factor and granuloma biology: explaining the differential infection risk of etanercept and infliximab. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2005, 34:34–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Science Inc 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Rheumatology, Mailstop 60Childrens Hospital Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations