Maternal Sleep in Pregnancy and Postpartum Part I: Mental, Physical, and Interpersonal Consequences

  • Lisa M. ChristianEmail author
  • Judith E. Carroll
  • Douglas M. Teti
  • Martica H. Hall
Reproductive Psychiatry and Women's Health (CN Epperson and L Hantsoo, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Reproductive Psychiatry and Women's Health


Purpose of Review

Sleep is a critical restorative behavior which occupies approximately one third of people’s lives. Extensive data link sleep health with disease and mortality risk in the general population. During pregnancy and following childbirth, unique factors contribute to overall sleep health. In addition, there are unique implications of poor sleep during these time periods.

Recent Findings

Poor maternal sleep may contribute to risk for adverse birth outcomes as well as poor maternal physical and mental health in pregnancy, postpartum, and longer term during childrearing. Moreover, the extent to which notable racial disparities in sleep contribute to disparities in adverse perinatal health outcomes remains to be fully explicated.


Part I of this two-part review details these implications of poor sleep for mental health, physical health outcomes, and relationship functioning, while Part II delves into biological mechanisms as well as treatment approaches.


Sleep Perinatal health Birth outcomes Racial disparities Insomnia Women’s health Postpartum weight retention Interpersonal relationships Mental health Mood 


Compliance With Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Brindle R, Cribbet M, Samuelsson L, Gao C, Frank E, Krafty R, et al. The relationship between childhood trauma and poor sleep health in adulthood. Psychosom Med. 2018;80(2):200–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cappuccio FP, D'Elia L, Strazzullo P, Miller MA. Sleep duration and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Sleep. 2010;33(5):585–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Shaffer ML, Vela-Bueno A, Basta M, et al. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration and incident hypertension: the Penn State cohort. Hypertension. 2012;60(4):929–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kline CE, Hall MH, Buysse DJ, Earnest CP, Church TS. Poor sleep quality is associated with insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2018;16(4):183–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smagula SF, Krafty RT, Thayer JF, Buysse DJ, Hall MH. Rest-activity rhythm profiles associated with manic-hypomanic and depressive symptoms. J Psychiatr Res. 2018;102:238–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thurston RC, Chang Y, von Känel R, Barinas-Mitchell E, Jennings JR, Hall MH, et al. Sleep characteristics and carotid atherosclerosis among midlife women. Sleep. 2017;40(2):zsw052.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wallace ML, Stone K, Smagula SF, Hall MH, Simsek B, Kado DM, et al. Which sleep health characteristics predict all-cause mortality in older men? An application of flexible multivariable approaches. Sleep. 2018;41(1):zsx189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gottlieb DJ, Redline S, Nieto FJ, Baldwin CM, Newman AB, Resnick HE, et al. Association of usual sleep duration with hypertension: the Sleep Heart Health study. Sleep. 2006;29(8):1009–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res. 1989;28(2):193–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Johns MW. Reliability and factor analysis of the epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep. 1992;15(4):376–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Furihata R, Hall MH, Stone KL, Ancoli-Israel S, Smagula SF, Cauley JA, et al. An aggregate measure of sleep health is associated with prevalent and incident clinically significant depression symptoms among community-dwelling older women. Sleep. 2017;40(3):zsw075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bastien CH, Vallières A, Morin CM. Validation of the Insomnia Severity Index as an outcome measure for insomnia research. Sleep Med. 2001;2(4):297–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carney CE, Buysse DJ, Ancoli-Israel S, Edinger JD, Krystal AD, Lichstein KL, et al. The consensus sleep diary: standardizing prospective sleep self-monitoring. Sleep. 2012;35(2):287–302.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Monk TH, Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ, Buysse DJ, Coble PA, Hayes AJ, et al. The pittsburgh sleep diary. J Sleep Res. 1994;3(2):111–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marino M, Li Y, Rueschman MN, Winkelman JW, Ellenbogen JM, Solet JM, et al. Measuring sleep: accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of wrist actigraphy compared to polysomnography. Sleep. 2013;36(11):1747–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Israel B, Buysse DJ, Krafty RT, Begley A, Miewald J, Hall M. Short-term stability of sleep and heart rate variability in good sleepers and patients with insomnia: for some measures, one night is enough. Sleep. 2012;35(9):1285–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Matthews KA, Patel SR, Pantesco EJ, Buysse DJ, Kamarck TW, Lee L, et al. Similarities and differences in estimates of sleep duration by polysomnography, actigraphy, diary, and self-reported habitual sleep in a community sample. Sleep Health. 2018;4(1):96–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Johnson EO. Epidemiology of insomnia: from adolescence to old age. Sleep Med Clin. 2006;1(3):305–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ohayon MM, Carskadon MA, Guilleminault C, Vitiello MV. Meta-analysis of quantitative sleep parameters from childhood to old age in healthy individuals: developing normative sleep values across the human lifespan. Sleep. 2004;27(7):1255–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Punjabi NM. The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep apnea. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008;5(2):136–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Buysse DJ, Browman KE, Monk TH, Reynolds CF, Fasiczka AL, Kupfer DJ. Napping and 24-hour sleep/wake patterns in healthy elderly and young adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40(8):779–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carskadon MA. Sleep in adolescents: the perfect storm. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2011;58(3):637–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    LeBourgeois MK, Hale L, Chang A-M, Akacem LD, Montgomery-Downs HE, Buxton OM. Digital media and sleep in childhood and adolescence. Pediatrics. 2017;140(Supplement 2):S92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    • Consensus Conference P, Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, et al. Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: a joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. Sleep. 2015;38(6):843–4 This paper provides expert consensus guidelines for healthy sleep duration in adults. Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    • Paruthi S, Brooks LJ, D'Ambrosio C, Hall WA, Kotagal S, Lloyd RM, et al. Recommended amount of sleep for pediatric populations: a consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016;12(6):785–6 This joint consensus statement provides expert opinion regarding sleep needs in pediatric populations. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    ACGME Task Force in Quality Care and Professionalism, A.f.G.M.E., The ACGME (2011) Duty hour standards: enhancing quality of care, supervision, and resident professional development. A.S. Philbert I (ed) Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Croft JB. School start times, sleep, behavioral, health, and academic outcomes: a review of the literature. J School Health. 2016;86(5):363–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Roth T, Coulouvrat C, Hajak G, Lakoma MD, Sampson NA, Shahly V, et al. Prevalence and perceived health associated with insomnia based on DSM-IV-TR; International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision; and Research Diagnostic Criteria/International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition criteria: results from the America Insomnia Survey. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69(6):592–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Okun ML, Coussons-Read ME. Sleep disruption during pregnancy: how does it influence serum cytokines? J Reprod Immunol. 2007;73(2):158–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Facco FL, Kramer J, Ho KH, Zee PC, Grobman WA. Sleep disturbances in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115(1):77–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sowers MF, Zheng H, Kravitz HM, Matthews K, Bromberger JT, Gold EB, et al. Sex steroid hormone profiles are related to sleep measures from polysomnography and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Sleep. 2008;31(10):1339–49.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee KA, Mcenany G, Zaffke ME. REM sleep and mood state in childbearing women: sleepy or weepy? Sleep. 2000;23(7):877–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    •• Blair LM, Porter K, Leblebicioglu B, Christian LM. Poor sleep quality and associated inflammation predict preterm birth: heightened risk among african americans. Sleep. 2015;38(8):1259–67 This paper provides novel evidence linking poor sleep with birth outcomes via inflammatory mechansims, and also demonstrates unique vulnerability among African American women. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Christian LM, Kowalsky JM, Mitchell AM, Porter K. Associations of postpartum sleep, stress, and depressive symptoms with LPS-stimulated cytokine production among African American and White women. J Neuroimmunol. 2018.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hagen EW, Mirer AG, Palta M, Peppard PE. The sleep-time cost of parenting: sleep duration and sleepiness among employed parents in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(5):394–401.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Meltzer LJ, Mindell JA. Relationship between child sleep disturbances and maternal sleep, mood, and parenting stress: a pilot study. J Fam Psychol. 2007;21(1):67–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mindell JA, Sadeh A, Kwon R, Goh DY. Relationship between child and maternal sleep: a developmental and cross-cultural comparison. J Pediatr Psychol. 2015.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Horiuchi S, Nishihara K. Analyses of mothers' sleep logs in postpartum periods. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999;53(2):137–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Montgomery-Downs HE, Insana SP, Clegg-Kraynok MM, Mancini LM. Normative longitudinal maternal sleep: the first 4 postpartum months. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;203(5):465.e1-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gay CL, Lee KA, Lee SY. Sleep patterns and fatigue in new mothers and fathers. Biol Res Nurs. 2004;5(4):311–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Filtness AJ, MacKenzie J, Armstrong K. Longitudinal change in sleep and daytime sleepiness in postpartum women. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e103513.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sivertsen B, Hysing M, Dorheim SK, Eberhard-Gran M. Trajectories of maternal sleep problems before and after childbirth: a longitudinal population-based study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015;15.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Thoman EB. Sleeping and waking states in infants—a functional perspective. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1990;14(1):93–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goodlin-Jones BL, Burnham MM, Gaylor EE, Anders TF. Night waking, sleep-wake organization, and self-soothing in the first year of life. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2001;22(4):226–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dahl RE. The development and disorders of sleep. Adv Pediatr Infect Dis. 1998;45:73–90.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Giallo R, Rose N, Vittorino R. Fatigue, wellbeing and parenting in mothers of infants and toddlers with sleep problems. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2011;29(3):236–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Liu Y, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Cunningham TJ, Lu H, Croft JB. Prevalence of healthy sleep duration among adults—United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65(6):137–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    •• Hall MH, Matthews KA, Kravitz HM, Gold EB, Buysse DJ, Bromberger JT, et al. Race and financial strain are independent correlates of sleep in midlife women: The SWAN Sleep Study. Sleep. 2009;32(1):73–82 This paper was the first to report that the association between race and objectively-assessed sleep is independent of socioeconomic status and financial strain. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Petrov ME, Lichstein KL. Differences in sleep between black and white adults: an update and future directions. Sleep Med. 2016;18:74–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ruiter ME, Decoster J, Jacobs L, Lichstein KL. Normal sleep in African-Americans and Caucasian-Americans: a meta-analysis. Sleep Med. 2011;12(3):209–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Centers for Disease Control. CDC Natality Information: Natality for 2007–2015. [cited 2017 01/02/2018]; Available from: Accessed 01 Nov 2018.
  52. 52.
    Rossen LM, Schoendorf KC. Trends in racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality rates in the United States, 1989–2006. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(8):1549–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Parker JD, Abrams B. Differences in postpartum weight retention between Black-and-White mothers. Obstet Gynecol. 1993;81(5):768–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Smith DE, Lewis CE, Caveny JL, Perkins LL, Burke GL, Bild DE. Longitudinal changes in adiposity associated with pregnancy. The CARDIA Study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. JAMA. 1994;271(22):1747–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Keppel KG, Taffel SM. Pregnancy-related weight gain and retention: implications of the 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Am J Public Health. 1993;83(8):1100–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Boardley DJ, Sargent RG, Coker AL, Hussey JR, Sharpe PA. The relationship between diet, activity, and other factors, and postpartum weight change by race. Obstet Gynecol. 1995;86(5):834–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Siega-Riz AM, Herring AH, Carrier K, Evenson KR, Dole N, Deierlein A. Sociodemographic, perinatal, behavioral, and psychosocial predictors of weight retention at 3 and 12 months postpartum. Obesity. 2010;18(10):1996–2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gunderson EP, Rifas-Shiman SL, Oken E, Rich-Edwards JW, Kleinman KP, Taveras EM, et al. Association of fewer hours of sleep at 6 months postpartum with substantial weight retention at 1 year postpartum. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167(2):178–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Facco FL, Grobman WA, Reid KJ, Parker CB, Hunter SM, Silver RM, et al. Objectively measured short sleep duration and later sleep midpoint in pregnancy are associated with a higher risk of gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217(4):447 e1–447 e13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kamysheva E, Skouteris H, Wertheim EH, Paxton SJ, Milgrom J. A prospective investigation of the relationships among sleep quality, physical symptoms, and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. J Affect Disord. 2010;123(1–3):317–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Okun ML, Schetter CD, Glynn LM. Poor sleep quality is associated with preterm birth. Sleep. 2011;34(11):1493–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    O'Brien LM, Bullough AS, Owusu JT, Tremblay KA, Brincat CA, Chames MC, et al. Snoring during pregnancy and delivery outcomes: a cohort study. Sleep. 2013;36(11):1625–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Facco FL, Grobman WA, Kramer J, Ho KH, Zee PC. Self-reported short sleep duration and frequent snoring in pregnancy: impact on glucose metabolism. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;203(2):142 e1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Haney A, Buysse DJ, Rosario BL, Chen YF, Okun ML. Sleep disturbance and cardiometabolic risk factors in early pregnancy: a preliminary study. Sleep Med. 2014;15(4):444–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Haney A, Buysse DJ, Okun M. Sleep and pregnancy-induced hypertension: a possible target for intervention? J Clin Sleep Med. 2013;9(12):1349–56.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Micheli K, Komninos I, Bagkeris E, Roumeliotaki T, Koutis A, Kogevinas M, et al. Sleep patterns in late pregnancy and risk of preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. Epidemiology. 2011;22(5):738–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    •• Felder JN, Baer RJ, Rand L, Jelliffe-Pawlowski LL, Prather AA. Sleep Disorder Diagnosis during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol. 2017;130(3):573–81 This study provides case-control data linking sleep disorder diagnoses, per medical record, with birth outcomes retrospectively. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Okun ML, Kline CE, Roberts JM, Wettlaufer B, Glover K, Hall M. Prevalence of sleep deficiency in early gestation and its associations with stress and depressive symptoms. J Womens Health. 2013;22(12):1028–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Swanson LM, Pickett SM, Flynn H, Armitage R. Relationships among depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms in perinatal women seeking mental health treatment. J Women's Health. 2011;20(4):553–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Teti DM, Crosby B, McDaniel BT, Shimizu M, Whitesell CJ. Marital and emotional adjustment in mothers and infant sleep arrangements during the first six months. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 2015;80(1):160–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Glover V. Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome; what needs to be done. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;28(1):25–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pearson RM, Evans J, Kounali D, Lewis G, Heron J, Ramchandani PG, et al. Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period: risks and possible mechanisms for offspring depression at age 18 years. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70(12):1312–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Makrides M, Gibson RA, McPhee AJ, Yelland L, Quinlivan J, Ryan P, et al. Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010;304(15):1675–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Grote NK, Bridge JA, Gavin AR, Melville JL, Iyengar S, Katon WJ. A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(10):1012–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ding XX, Wu YL, Xu SJ, Zhu RP, Jia XM, Zhang SF, et al. Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Affect Disord. 2014;159:103–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gunn HE, Troxel WM, Hall M, Buysse DJ. Interpersonal distress is associated with sleep and arousal in insomnia and good sleepers. J Psychosom Res. 2014;76(3):242–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Maranges HM. The rested relationship: sleep benefits marital evaluations. J Fam Psychol. 31(1):117–122.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nowack K. Sleep, emotional intelligence, and interpersonal effectiveness: natural bedfellows. 2017;69:66–79.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Brand S, Gerber M, Hatzinger M, Beck J, Holsboer-Trachsler E. Evidence for similarities between adolescents and parents in sleep patterns. Sleep Med. 2009;10(10):1124–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tu KM, Elmore-Staton L, Buckhalt JA, El-Sheikh M. The link between maternal sleep and permissive parenting during late adolescence. J Sleep Res. 2018;27(5):e12676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    •• Teti DM, Shimizu M, Crosby B, Kim B-R. Sleep arrangements, parent-infant sleep during the first year, and family functioning. Dev Psychol. 2016;52(8):1169–81 This paper finds a significant association between persistent cosleeping (room sharing, bed sharing, or both) and heightened family stress (compromised coparenting and bedtime parenting quality), which emphasizes the need to understand how family system-level processes and the structuring of infant sleep intersect. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    McDaniel BT, Teti DM. Coparenting quality during the first three months after birth: the role of infant sleep quality. J Fam Psychol. 2012;26(6):886–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bai L, Teti DM. Maternal irregular sleep patterns and parenting quality during infants' first 6months. Poster presented at the International Congress on Infant Studies. Philadelphia, PA; 2018.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sheridan A, Murray L, Cooper PJ, Evangeli M, Byram V, Halligan SL. A longitudinal study of child sleep in high and low risk families: relationship to early maternal settling strategies and child psychological functioning. Sleep Med. 2013;14(3):266–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Huber R, Born J. Sleep, synaptic connectivity, and hippocampal memory during early development. Trends Cogn Sci. 2014;18(3):141–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Li L, Ren J, Shi L, Jin X, Yan C, Jiang F, et al. Frequent nocturnal awakening in children: prevalence, risk factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:204.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Buckhalt JA, Staton LE. Children's sleep, cognition, and academic performance in the context of socioeconomic status and ethnicity. In: El-Sheikh M, editor. Sleep and development: familial and socio-cultural considerations. New York: Oxford University Press; 2011. p. 245–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wong MM, Brower KJ, Fitzgerald HE, Zucker RA. Sleep problems in early childhood and early onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;28(4):578–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gregory AM, Caspi A, Eley TC, Moffitt TE, O’Connor TG, Poulton R. Prospective longitudinal associations between persistent sleep problems in childhood and anxiety and depression disorders in adulthood. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2005;33(2):157–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sadeh A, Mindell J, Rivera L. My child has a sleep problem”: a cross-cultural comparison of parental definitions. Sleep Med. 2011;12(5):478–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Byars KC, Yeomans-Maldonado G, Noll JG. Parental functioning and pediatric sleep disturbance: an examination of factors associated with parenting stress in children clinically referred for evaluation of insomnia. Sleep Med. 2011;12(9):898–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Scher A, Epstein R, Tirosh E. Stability and changes in sleep regulation: a longitudinal study from 3 months to 3 years. Int J Behav Dev. 2004;28(3):268–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Cappuccio FP, Taggart FM, Kandala NB, Currie A, Peile E, Stranges S, et al. Meta-analysis of short sleep duration and obesity in children and adults. Sleep. 2008;31(5):619–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sperry SD, Scully ID, Gramzow RH, Jorgensen RS. Sleep duration and waist circumference in adults: a meta-analysis. Sleep. 2015;38(8):1269–76.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wu YL, Zhai L, Zhang DF. Sleep duration and obesity among adults: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Sleep Med. 2014;15(12):1456–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    van den Berg JF, Neven AK, Tulen JHM, Hofman A, Witteman JCM, Miedema HME, et al. Actigraphic sleep duration and fragmentation are related to obesity in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study. Int J Obes. 2008;32(7):1083–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sawamoto R, Nozaki T, Furukawa T, Tanahashi T, Morita C, Hata T, Komaki G, Sudo N. Higher sleep fragmentation predicts a lower magnitude of weight loss in overweight and obese women participating in a weight-loss intervention. Nutr Diab. 2014;4.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wang Y, Carreras A, Lee S, Hakim F, Zhang SX, Nair D, et al. Chronic sleep fragmentation promotes obesity in young adult mice. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(3):758–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa M. Christian
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Judith E. Carroll
    • 3
  • Douglas M. Teti
    • 4
  • Martica H. Hall
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral HealthThe Ohio State University Wexner Medical CenterColumbusUSA
  2. 2.The Institute for Behavioral Medicine ResearchThe Ohio State University Wexner Medical CenterColumbusUSA
  3. 3.Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUniversity of California – Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Department of Human Development and Family StudiesThe Pennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryThe University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations