Gender-Affirming Hormone Use in Transgender Individuals: Impact on Behavioral Health and Cognition
Purpose of Review
With increasing numbers of transgender and gender non-binary individuals presenting for care, knowing how to elucidate the mental health and cognitive outcomes of gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) is necessary. This article reviews the present literature covering GAHT effects on mood, behavioral health, and cognition in these individuals and offers research priorities to address knowledge gaps.
Although there are some conflicting data, GAHT overwhelmingly seems to have positive psychological effects in both adolescents and adults. Research tends to support that GAHT reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, lowers perceived and social distress, and improves quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male transgender individuals.
Clinically, prescribing GAHT can help with gender dysphoria-related mental distress. Thus, timely hormonal intervention represents a crucial tool for improving behavioral wellness in transgender individuals, though effects on cognitive processes fundamental for daily living are unknown. Future research should prioritize better understanding of how GAHT may affect executive functioning.
KeywordsTransgender Gender Sex Gender-affirming hormone therapy Mood Behavioral health Cognition
The editors would like to thank Dr. Bradley Gaynes for taking the time to review this manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Hillary B. Nguyen, Alexis M. Chavez, Emily Lipner, Liisa Hantsoo, Sara L. Kornfield, Robert D. Davies, and C. Neill Epperson declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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