Purpose of Review
This review delineates issues in the conceptualization and operationalization of eating disorder recovery, highlights recent findings about recovery (since 2016), and proposes future directions.
A longstanding problem in the field is that there are almost as many different definitions of recovery in eating disorders as there are studies on the topic. Yet, there has been a general shift to accepting that psychological/cognitive symptoms are important to recovery in addition to physical and behavioral indices. Further, several operationalizations of recovery have been proposed over the past two decades, and some efforts to validate operationalizations exist. However, this work has had limited impact and uptake, such that the field is suffering from “broken record syndrome,” where calls are made for universal definitions time and time again. It is critical that proposed operationalizations be compared empirically to help arrive at a consensus definition and that institutional/organizational support help facilitate this. Themes in recent recovery research include identifying predictors, examining biological/neuropsychological factors, and considering severe and enduring anorexia nervosa. From qualitative research, those who have experienced eating disorders highlight recovery as a journey, as well as factors such as hope, self-acceptance, and benefiting from support from others as integral to the process of recovery.
The field urgently needs to implement a universal definition of recovery that is backed by evidence, that can parsimoniously be implemented in clinical practice, and that will lead to greater harmonization of scientific findings.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
Berkman ND, Lohr KN, Bulik CM. Outcomes of eating disorders: a systematic review of the literature. Int J Eat Disord. 2007;40(4):293–309.
Steinhausen H-C, Weber S. The outcome of bulimia nervosa: findings from one-quarter century of research. Am J Psychiatr. 2009;166(12):1331–41.
Steinhausen H-C. The outcome of anorexia nervosa in the 20th century. Am J Psychiatr. 2002;159(8):1284–93.
Steinhausen H-C. Outcome of eating disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2009;18(1):225–42.
Couturier J, Lock J. What is recovery in adolescent anorexia nervosa? Int J Eat Disord. 2006;39(7):550–5.
•• Bardone-Cone AM, Harney MB, Maldonado CR, Lawson MA, Robinson DP, Smith R, et al. Defining recovery from an eating disorder: conceptualization, validation, and examination of psychosocial functioning and psychiatric comorbidity. Behav Res Ther. 2010;48(3):194–202. This study provides a comprehensive, transdiganostic definition of recovery including physical, behavioral, and psychological criteria and further elucidates the importance of psychological criteria of recovery.
Jarman M, Walsh S. Evaluating recovery from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: integrating lessons learned from research and clinical practice. Clin Psychol Rev. 1999;19(7):773–88.
•• Khalsa SS, Portnoff LC, McCurdy-McKinnon D, Feusner JD. What happens after treatment? A systematic review of relapse, remission, and recovery in anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;5(1):20. This study reviews defintions of recovery and relapse in recent literature and proposes standardized criteria for recovery, remission, and relapse in AN.
Kordy H, Krämer B, Palmer RL, Papezova H, Pellet J, Richard M, et al. Remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence in eating disorders: conceptualization and illustration of a validation strategy. J Clin Psychol. 2002;58(7):833–46.
Pike KM. Long-term course of anorexia nervosa: response, relapse, remission, and recovery. Clin Psychol Rev. 1998;18(4):447–75.
Williams SE, Watts TK, Wade TD. A review of the definitions of outcome used in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012;32(4):292–300.
Yu J, Agras WS, Bryson S. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa. Eat Disord. 2013;21(5):379–94.
Bachner-Melman R, Zohar AH, Ebstein RP. An examination of cognitive versus behavioral components of recovery from anorexia nervosa. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2006;194(9):697–703.
Lock J, Agras WS, Grange D, Couturier J, Safer D, Bryson SW. Do end of treatment assessments predict outcome at follow-up in eating disorders? Int J Eat Disord. 2013;46(8):771–8.
•• de Vos JA, LaMarre A, Radstaak M, Bijkerk CA, Bohlmeijer ET, Westerhof GJ. Identifying fundamental criteria for eating disorder recovery: a systematic review and qualitative meta-analysis. J Eat Disord. 2017;5(1):34. This paper provides a systematic review of criteria for recovery described as integral by recovered individuals
Dawson L, Rhodes P, Touyz S. Defining recovery from anorexia nervosa: a Delphi study to determine expert practitioners’ views. Adv Eat Disord Theory Res Pract. 2015;3(2):165–76.
Bang L, Rø Ø, Endestad T. Normal gray matter volumes in women recovered from anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometry study. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16(1):144.
Bang L, Rø Ø, Endestad T. Amygdala alterations during an emotional conflict task in women recovered from anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2016;248:126–33.
Bardone-Cone AM, Butler RM, Balk MR, Koller KA. Dimensions of impulsivity in relation to eating disorder recovery. Int J Eat Disord. 2016;49(11):1027–31.
Bardone-Cone AM, Higgins M, St. George SM, Rosenzweig I, Schaefer LM, Fitzsimmons-Craft EE, et al. Behavioral and psychological aspects of exercise across stages of eating disorder recovery. Eat Disord. 2016;24(5):424–39.
Bernardoni F, King JA, Geisler D, Stein E, Jaite C, Nätsch D, et al. Weight restoration therapy rapidly reverses cortical thinning in anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal study. NeuroImage. 2016;130:214–22.
Boehm I, Geisler D, Tam F, King JA, Ritschel F, Seidel M, et al. Partially restored resting-state functional connectivity in women recovered from anorexia nervosa. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2016;41(6):377.
Dapelo MM, Hart S, Hale C, Morris R, Tchanturia K. Expression of positive emotions differs in illness and recovery in anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Res. 2016;246:48–51.
Egger N, Wild B, Zipfel S, Junne F, Konnopka A, Schmidt U, et al. Cost-effectiveness of focal psychodynamic therapy and enhanced cognitive–behavioural therapy in out-patients with anorexia nervosa. Psychosom Med. 2016;46(16):3291–301.
Ely AV, Wierenga CE, Kaye WH. Anxiety impacts cognitive inhibition in remitted anorexia nervosa. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2016;24(4):347–51.
• Errichiello L, Iodice D, Bruzzese D, Gherghi M, Senatore I. Prognostic factors and outcome in anorexia nervosa: a follow-up study. Eat Weight Disord. 2016;21(1):73–82. Through cluster analysis, this study identifies prognostic factors associated with good outcome (physical and behavioral indices of recovery) in patients with AN.
Frank GK, Collier S, Shott ME, O’Reilly RC. Prediction error and somatosensory insula activation in women recovered from anorexia nervosa. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2016;41(5):304.
Frank GK, Shott ME, Keffler C, Cornier MA. Extremes of eating are associated with reduced neural taste discrimination. Int J Eat Disord. 2016;49(6):603–12.
Godier LR, de Wit S, Pinto A, Steinglass JE, Greene AL, Scaife J, et al. An investigation of habit learning in anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Res. 2016;244:214–22.
Hartmann A, Zeeck A, Herzog W, Wild B, Zwaan M, Herpertz S, et al. The intersession process in psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa: characteristics and relation to outcome. J Clin Psychol. 2016;72(9):861–79.
Las Hayas C, Padilla P, Barrio AG, Beato-Fernandez L, Muñoz P, Gámez-Guadix M. Individualised versus standardised assessment of quality of life in eating disorders. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2016;24(2):147–56.
Levallius J, Roberts BW, Clinton D, Norring C. Take charge: personality as predictor of recovery from eating disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2016;246:447–52.
McAdams CJ, Jeon-Slaughter H, Evans S, Lohrenz T, Montague PR, Krawczyk DC. Neural differences in self-perception during illness and after weight-recovery in anorexia nervosa. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2016;11(11):1823–31.
Monteleone AM, Monteleone P, Serino I, Amodio R, Monaco F, Maj M. Underweight subjects with anorexia nervosa have an enhanced salivary cortisol response not seen in weight restored subjects with anorexia nervosa. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;70:118–21.
Mustelin L, Latvala A, Raevuori A, Rose RJ, Kaprio J, Keski-Rahkonen A. Risky drinking behaviors among women with eating disorders—a longitudinal community-based study. Int J Eat Disord. 2016;49(6):563–71.
Mustelin L, Lehtokari VL, Keski-Rahkonen A. Other specified and unspecified feeding or eating disorders among women in the community. Int J Eat Disord. 2016;49(11):1010–7.
Mustelin L, Silén Y, Raevuori A, Hoek HW, Kaprio J, Keski-Rahkonen A. The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa may change its population prevalence and prognostic value. J Psychiatr Res. 2016;77:85–91.
O’Hara CB, Keyes A, Renwick B, Giel KE, Campbell IC, Schmidt U. Evidence that illness-compatible cues are rewarding in women recovered from anorexia nervosa: a study of the effects of dopamine depletion on eye-blink startle responses. PLoS One. 2016;11(10):e0165104.
O’Hara CB, Keyes A, Renwick B, Leyton M, Campbell IC, Schmidt U. The effects of acute dopamine precursor depletion on the reinforcing value of exercise in anorexia nervosa. PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0145894.
Pfuhl G, King JA, Geisler D, Roschinski B, Ritschel F, Seidel M, et al. Preserved white matter microstructure in young patients with anorexia nervosa? Hum Brain Mapp. 2016;37(11):4069–83.
Phillips KE, Jimerson DC, Pillai A, Wolfe BE. Plasma BDNF levels following weight recovery in anorexia nervosa. Physiol Behav. 2016;165:300–3.
Scaife JC, Godier LR, Reinecke A, Harmer CJ, Park RJ. Differential activation of the frontal pole to high vs low calorie foods: the neural basis of food preference in anorexia nervosa? Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2016;258:44–53.
Shih P-aB, Yang J, Morisseau C, German JB, Scott-Van Zeeland A, Armando AM, et al. Dysregulation of soluble epoxide hydrolase and lipidomic profiles in anorexia nervosa. Mol Psychiatry. 2016;21(4):537.
Shott ME, Pryor TL, Yang TT, Frank GK. Greater insula white matter fiber connectivity in women recovered from anorexia nervosa. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016;41(2):498.
Sultson H, van Meer F, Sanders N, van Elburg AA, Danner UN, Hoek HW, et al. Associations between neural correlates of visual stimulus processing and set-shifting in ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2016;255:35–42.
Kjærsdam Telléus G, Fagerlund B, Jepsen JR, Bentz M, Christiansen E, Valentin JB, et al. Are weight status and cognition associated? An examination of cognitive development in children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa 1 year after first hospitalisation. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2016;24(5):366–76.
Wild B, Friederich H-C, Zipfel S, Resmark G, Giel K, Teufel M, et al. Predictors of outcomes in outpatients with anorexia nervosa: results from the ANTOP study. Psychiatry Res. 2016;244:45–50.
Bailer UF, Price JC, Meltzer CC, Wagner A, Mathis CA, Gamst A, et al. Dopaminergic activity and altered reward modulation in anorexia nervosa—insight from multimodal imaging. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;50(5):593–6.
Bang L, Rø Ø, Endestad T. Normal white matter microstructure in women long-term recovered from anorexia nervosa: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Int J Eat Disord. 2018;51(1):46–52.
Bang L, Rø Ø, Endestad T. Threat-detection and attentional bias to threat in women recovered from anorexia nervosa: neural alterations in extrastriate and medial prefrontal cortices. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2017;25(2):80–8.
Baucom DH, Kirby JS, Fischer MS, Baucom BR, Hamer R, Bulik CM. Findings from a couple-based open trial for adult anorexia nervosa. J Fam Psychol. 2017;31(5):584.
Bentz M, Guldberg J, Vangkilde S, Pedersen T, Plessen KJ, Jepsen JRM. Heightened olfactory sensitivity in young females with recent-onset anorexia nervosa and recovered individuals. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0169183.
Bentz M, Jepsen JRM, Pedersen T, Bulik CM, Pedersen L, Pagsberg AK, et al. Impairment of social function in young females with recent-onset anorexia nervosa and recovered individuals. J Adolesc Health. 2017;60(1):23–32.
Bentz M, Jepsen JRM, Telléus GK, Moslet U, Pedersen T, Bulik CM, et al. Neurocognitive functions and social functioning in young females with recent-onset anorexia nervosa and recovered individuals. J Eat Disord. 2017;5(1):5.
Calugi S, El Ghoch M, Dalle GR. Intensive enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy for severe and enduring anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal outcome study. Behav Res Ther. 2017;89:41–8.
• Eddy KT, Tabri N, Thomas JJ, Murray HB, Keshaviah A, Hastings E, et al. Recovery from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa at 22-year follow-up. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017;78(2):184–9. This longitudinal study used the Psychiatric Rating Scale to examine both shorter-term (9 year) and longer-term (20–25 years) recovery in individuals with AN and BN and provides evidence that recovery from severe and enduring AN is possible.
Erdur L, Weber C, Zimmermann-Viehoff F, Rose M, Deter HC. Affective responses in different stages of anorexia nervosa: results from a startle-reflex paradigm. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2017;25(2):114–22.
Forsberg S, Darcy A, Bryson SW, Arnow KD, Datta N, Le Grange D, et al. Psychological symptoms among parents of adolescents with anorexia nervosa: a descriptive examination of their presence and role in treatment outcome. J Fam Ther. 2017;39(4):514–36.
Halvorsen I, Reas DL, Nilsen JV, Rø Ø. Naturalistic outcome of family-based inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2017;26(2):141–5.
Harper JA, Brodrick B, Van Enkevort E, McAdams CJ. Neuropsychological and cognitive correlates of recovery in anorexia nervosa. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2017;25(6):491–500.
Kuipers GS, den Hollander S, van der Ark LA, Bekker MH. Recovery from eating disorder 1 year after start of treatment is related to better mentalization and strong reduction of sensitivity to others. Eat Weight Disord. 2017;22(3):535–47.
Leppanen J, Dapelo MM, Davies H, Lang K, Treasure J, Tchanturia K. Computerised analysis of facial emotion expression in eating disorders. PLoS One. 2017;12(6):e0178972.
Martin Monzon B, Henderson LA, Madden S, Macefield VG, Touyz S, Kohn MR, et al. Grey matter volume in adolescents with anorexia nervosa and associated eating disorder symptoms. Eur J Neurosci. 2017;46(7):2297–307.
Scaife JC, Godier LR, Filippini N, Harmer CJ, Park RJ. Reduced resting-state Functional connectivity in current and recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa. Front Psychiatry. 2017;8:30.
Swenne I, Parling T, Ros HS. Family-based intervention in adolescent restrictive eating disorders: early treatment response and low weight suppression is associated with favourable one-year outcome. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1):333.
Xu J, Harper JA, Van Enkevort EA, Latimer K, Kelley U, McAdams CJ. Neural activations are related to body-shape, anxiety, and outcomes in adolescent anorexia nervosa. J Psychiatr Res. 2017;87:1–7.
Boehm I, Flohr L, Steding J, Holzapfel L, Seitz J, Roessner V, et al. The trajectory of anhedonic and depressive symptoms in anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal and cross-sectional approach. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2018;26(1):69–74.
Castellini G, Lelli L, Cassioli E, Ciampi E, Zamponi F, Campone B, et al. Different outcomes, psychopathological features, and comorbidities in patients with eating disorders reporting childhood abuse: a 3-year follow-up study. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2018;26(3):217–29.
• Franko DL, Tabri N, Keshaviah A, Murray HB, Herzog DB, Thomas JJ, et al. Predictors of long-term recovery in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: data from a 22-year longitudinal study. J Psychiatr Res. 2018;96:183–8. This longitudinal study (22-year follow-up) examines predictors of long-term recovery using the Psychiatric Rating Scale in individuals with AN and BN.
Lavagnino L, Mwangi B, Cao B, Shott ME, Soares JC, Frank GK. Cortical thickness patterns as state biomarker of anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2018;51(3):241–9.
McAdams CJ, Harper JA, Van Enkevort E. Mentalization and the left inferior frontal gyrus and insula. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2018;26(3):265–71
Fairburn CG, Peveler RC, Jones R, Hope R, Doll HA. Predictors of 12-month outcome in bulimia nervosa and the influence of attitudes to shape and weight. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1993;61(4):696.
Keel PK, Dorer DJ, Franko DL, Jackson SC, Herzog DB. Postremission predictors of relapse in women with eating disorders. Am J Psychiatr. 2005;162(12):2263–8.
Keski-Rahkonen A, Tozzi F. The process of recovery in eating disorder sufferers’ own words: an Internet-based study. Int J Eat Disord. 2005;37(S1):S80–6.
Nakai Y, Nin K, Noma S, Hamagaki S, Takagi R, Teramukai S, et al. Clinical presentation and outcome of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in a Japanese sample. Eat Behav. 2017;24:49–53.
• Fichter MM, Quadflieg N, Crosby RD, Koch S. Long-term outcome of anorexia nervosa: Results from a large clinical longitudinal study. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;50(9):1018–30. This study is a 20-year follow-up of individuals with anorexia nervosa and reports on physical, behavioral, and (eating disorder-specific) psychological/cognitive outcomes, psychiatric comorbidity, and diagnostic crossover.
Parling T, Cernvall M, Ramklint M, Holmgren S, Ghaderi A. A randomised trial of acceptance and commitment therapy for anorexia nervosa after daycare treatment, including five-year follow-up. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16(1):272.
Morgan H, Russell G. Value of family background and clinical features as predictors of long-term outcome in anorexia nervosa: four-year follow-up study of 41 patients. Psychol Med. 1975;5(4):355–71.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
Zepf FD, Rao P, Runions K, Stewart RM, Moore JK, Wong JW, et al. Differences in serum zinc levels in acutely ill and remitted adolescents and young adults with bulimia nervosa in comparison with healthy controls—a cross-sectional pilot study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2017;13:2621.
Trottier K, Monson CM, Wonderlich SA, Olmsted MP. Initial findings from project recover: overcoming co-occurring eating disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder through integrated treatment. J Trauma Stress. 2017;30(2):173–7.
Murray HB, Tabri N, Thomas JJ, Herzog DB, Franko DL, Eddy KT. Will I get fat? 22-year weight trajectories of individuals with eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;50(7):739–47.
Fairburn CG, Beglin SJ. Assessment of eating disorders: interview or self-report questionnaire? Int J Eat Disord. 1994;16(4):363–70.
Cooper Z, Fairburn C. The eating disorder examination: a semi-structured interview for the assessment of the specific psychopathology of eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 1987;6(1):1–8.
Herzog DB, Sacks NR, Keller MB, Lavori PW, Von Ranson KB, Gray HM. Patterns and predictors of recovery in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1993;32(4):835–42.
Accurso EC, Wonderlich SA, Crosby RD, Smith TL, Klein MH, Mitchell JE, et al. Predictors and moderators of treatment outcome in a randomized clinical trial for adults with symptoms of bulimia nervosa. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2016;84(2):178.
Hughes EK, Le Grange D, Court A, Sawyer SM. A case series of family-based treatment for adolescents with atypical anorexia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;50(4):424–32.
Manasse SM, Espel HM, Schumacher LM, Kerrigan SG, Zhang F, Forman EM, et al. Does impulsivity predict outcome in treatment for binge eating disorder? A multimodal investigation. Appetite. 2016;105:172–9.
Le Grange D, Hughes EK, Yeo M, Crosby RD, Sawyer SM. Randomized clinical trial of parent-focused treatment and family-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016;55(8):683–92.
Wade S, Byrne S, Allen K. Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders adapted for a group setting. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;50(8):863–72.
Allan E, Le Grange D, Sawyer SM, McLean LA, Hughes EK. Parental expressed emotion during two forms of family-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2018;26(1):46–52.
Rienecke RD, Lebow J, Lock J, Le Grange D. Family profiles of expressed emotion in adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa and their parents. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2017;46(3):428–36.
Wallis A, Miskovic-Wheatley J, Madden S, Rhodes P, Crosby RD, Cao L, et al. How does family functioning effect the outcome of family based treatment for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa? J Eat Disord. 2017;5(1):55.
Lang K, Roberts M, Harrison A, Lopez C, Goddard E, Khondoker M, et al. Central coherence in eating disorders: a synthesis of studies using the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0165467.
Pinus U, Canetti L, Bonne O, Bachar E. Selflessness as a predictor of remission from an eating disorder: 1–4 year outcomes from an adolescent day-care unit. Eat Weight Disord. 2017;11:1–10.
Amianto F, Spalatro A, Ottone L, Daga GA, Fassino S. Naturalistic follow-up of subjects affected with anorexia nervosa 8 years after multimodal treatment: personality and psychopathology changes and predictors of outcome. Eur Psychiatry. 2017;45:198–206.
Cornelissen KK, Cornelissen PL, Hancock PJ, Tovée MJ. Fixation patterns, not clinical diagnosis, predict body size over-estimation in eating disordered women and healthy controls. Int J Eat Disord. 2016;49(5):507–18.
Seitz J, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Konrad K. Brain morphological changes in adolescent and adult patients with anorexia nervosa. J Neural Transm. 2016;123(8):949–59.
Ramjan LM, Fogarty S, Nicholls D, Hay P. Instilling hope for a brighter future: a mixed-method mentoring support program for individuals with and recovered from anorexia nervosa. J Clin Nurs. 2017;27(5–6):e845–e57.
Mekori E, Halevy L, Ziv SI, Moreno A, Enoch-Levy A, Weizman A, et al. Predictors of short-term outcome variables in hospitalised female adolescents with eating disorders. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2017;21(1):41–9.
Winkler LA-D, Frølich JS, Gudex C, Hørder K, Bilenberg N, Støving RK. Patient-and clinician-reported outcome in eating disorders. Psychiatry Res. 2017;247:230–5.
Olmsted MP, Kaplan AS, Rockert W. Defining remission and relapse in bulimia nervosa. Int J Eat Disord. 2005;38(1):1–6.
Jacobson NS, Truax P. Clinical significance: a statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1991;59(1):12.
Ackard DM, Richter SA, Egan AM, Cronemeyer CL. What does remission tell us about women with eating disorders? Investigating applications of various remission definitions and their associations with quality of life. J Psychosom Res. 2014;76(1):12–8.
Keski-Rahkonen A, Raevuori A, Bulik CM, Hoek HW, Rissanen A, Kaprio J. Factors associated with recovery from anorexia nervosa: a population-based study. Int J Eat Disord. 2014;47(2):117–23.
Vall E, Wade TD. Predictors of treatment outcome in individuals with eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Eat Disord. 2015;48(7):946–71.
Fuglset TS, Landrø NI, Reas DL, Rø Ø. Functional brain alterations in anorexia nervosa: a scoping review. J Eat Disord. 2016;4(1):32.
Holliday J, Tchanturia K, Landau S, Collier D, Treasure J. Is impaired set-shifting an endophenotype of anorexia nervosa? Am J Psychiatr. 2005;162(12):2269–75.
Dawson L, Rhodes P, Touyz S. “Doing the impossible” the process of recovery from chronic anorexia nervosa. Qual Health Res. 2014;24(4):494–505.
Wonderlich S, Mitchell JE, Crosby RD, Myers TC, Kadlec K, LaHaise K, et al. Minimizing and treating chronicity in the eating disorders: a clinical overview. Int J Eat Disord. 2012;45(4):467–75.
LaMarre A, Rice C. Normal eating is counter-cultural: embodied experiences of eating disorder recovery. J Community Appl Soc Psychol. 2016;26(2):136–49.
Rance N, Clarke V, Moller N. The anorexia nervosa experience: shame, solitude and salvation. Couns Psychother Res. 2017;17(2):127–36.
Hannon J, Eunson L, Munro C. The patient experience of illness, treatment, and change, during intensive community treatment for severe anorexia nervosa. Eat Disord. 2017;25(4):279–96.
Las Hayas C, Padierna JA, Muñoz P, Aguirre M, Gómez del Barrio A, Beato-Fernández L, et al. Resilience in eating disorders: a qualitative study. Women Health. 2016;56(5):576–94.
Faija CL, Tierney S, Gooding PA, Peters S, Fox JR. The role of pride in women with anorexia nervosa: a grounded theory study. Psychol Psychother Theory Res Pract. 2017;90(4):567–85.
Glasgow RE, Lichtenstein E, Marcus AC. Why don’t we see more translation of health promotion research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(8):1261–7.
Moessner M, Bauer S. Maximizing the public health impact of eating disorder services: a simulation study. Int J Eat Disord. 2017;50(12):1378–84.
Castellini G, Sauro CL, Mannucci E, Ravaldi C, Rotella CM, Faravelli C, et al. Diagnostic crossover and outcome predictors in eating disorders according to DSM-IV and DSM-V proposed criteria: a 6-year follow-up study. Psychosom Med. 2011;73(3):270–9.
Lord VM, Reiboldt W, Gonitzke D, Parker E, Peterson C. Experiences of recovery in binge-eating disorder: a qualitative approach using online message boards. Eat Weight Disord. 2018;23(1):95–105.
Keski-Rahkonen A, Hoek HW, Susser ES, Linna MS, Sihvola E, Raevuori A, et al. Epidemiology and course of anorexia nervosa in the community. Am J Psychiatr. 2007;164(8):1259–65.
Bulik CM, Sullivan PF, Tozzi F, Furberg H, Lichtenstein P, Pedersen NL. Prevalence, heritability, and prospective risk factors for anorexia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(3):305–12.
Ben-Tovim DI, Walker K, Gilchrist P, Freeman R, Kalucy R, Esterman A. Outcome in patients with eating disorders: a 5-year study. Lancet. 2001;357(9264):1254–7.
Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Taylor A, Kokaua J, Milne BJ, Polanczyk G, et al. How common are common mental disorders? Evidence that lifetime prevalence rates are doubled by prospective versus retrospective ascertainment. Psychol Med. 2010;40(6):899–909.
Horga G, Kaur T, Peterson BS. Annual research review: current limitations and future directions in MRI studies of child-and adult-onset developmental psychopathologies. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014;55(6):659–80.
Linardon J, Piedad Garcia X, Brennan L. Predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment outcome following manualised cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders: a systematic review. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2017;25(1):3–12.
NIH Grant R01 MH095860 to Anna M. Bardone-Cone (PI).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Eating Disorders
About this article
Cite this article
Bardone-Cone, A.M., Hunt, R.A. & Watson, H.J. An Overview of Conceptualizations of Eating Disorder Recovery, Recent Findings, and Future Directions. Curr Psychiatry Rep 20, 79 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-018-0932-9
- Eating disorders