Current Psychiatry Reports

, 18:111 | Cite as

Life Span Studies of ADHD—Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome

  • Arthur Caye
  • James Swanson
  • Anita Thapar
  • Margaret Sibley
  • Louise Arseneault
  • Lily Hechtman
  • L. Eugene Arnold
  • Janni Niclasen
  • Terrie Moffitt
  • Luis Augusto RohdeEmail author
Attention-Deficit Disorder (A Rostain, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Attention-Deficit Disorder


There is a renewed interest in better conceptualizing trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood, driven by an increased recognition of long-term impairment and potential persistence beyond childhood and adolescence. This review addresses the following major issues relevant to the course of ADHD in light of current evidence from longitudinal studies: (1) conceptual and methodological issues related to measurement of persistence of ADHD, (2) estimates of persistence rate from childhood to adulthood and its predictors, (3) long-term negative outcomes of childhood ADHD and their early predictors, and (4) the recently proposed new adult-onset ADHD. Estimates of persistence vary widely in the literature, and diagnostic criteria, sample characteristics, and information source are the most important factors explaining variability among studies. Evidence indicates that ADHD severity, comorbid conduct disorder and major depressive disorder, and treatment for ADHD are the main predictors of ADHD persistence from childhood to adulthood. Comorbid conduct disorder and ADHD severity in childhood are the most important predictors of adverse outcomes in adulthood among children with ADHD. Three recent population studies suggested the existence of a significant proportion of individuals who report onset of ADHD symptoms and impairments after childhood. Finally, we highlight areas for improvement to increase our understanding of ADHD across the life span.


ADHD Persistence Outcomes Predictors Course Longitudinal investigations 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Arthur Caye, Anita Thapar, Margaret Sibley, Louise Arseneault, Janni Niclasen, and Terrie Moffitt declare that they have no conflict of interest.

James Swanson reported receiving research support, advisory board membership, speaker’s bureau membership, and/or consulting for Alza, Richwood, Shire, Celgene, Novartis, Celltech, Gliatech, Cephalon, Watson, CIBA, UCB, Janssen-Cilag, McNeil, and Eli-Lilly.

Lily Hechtman has been on advisory boards and a speaker for Shire, Jannsen, Ironshore, and Purdue Pharma. She has also received research funds from Purdue.

L. Eugene Arnold has received research funding from Curemark, Forest, Lilly, Neuropharm, Novartis, Noven, Shire, Supernus, and YoungLiving (as well as NIH and Autism Speaks); has consulted with Gowlings, Neuropharm, Organon, Pfizer, Sigma Tau, Shire, Tris Pharma, and Waypoint; been on advisory boards for Arbor, Ironshore, Novartis, Noven, Otsuka, Pfizer, Roche, Seaside Therapeutics, Sigma Tau, and Shire; and received travel support from Noven.

Luis Augusto Rohde was on the speakers’ bureau/advisory board and/or acted as consultant for Eli-Lilly, Janssen-Cilag, Novartis, and Shire in the last 3 years. He receives authorship royalties from Oxford Press and ArtMed. He also received travel awards for taking part in the 2014 APA meeting and 2015 WFADHD meeting from Shire. The ADHD and Juvenile Bipolar Disorder Outpatient Programs chaired by him received unrestricted educational and research support from the following pharmaceutical companies in the last 3 years: Eli-Lilly, Janssen-Cilag, Novartis, and Shire.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    APA. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164(6):942–8. doi: 10.1176/ajp.2007.164.6.942.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Willcutt EG. The prevalence of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Neurother: J Am Soc Exp NeuroTher. 2012;9(3):490–9. doi: 10.1007/s13311-012-0135-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Simon V, Czobor P, Balint S, Meszaros A, Bitter I. Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry: J Ment Sci. 2009;194(3):204–11. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.048827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Faraone SV, Asherson P, Banaschewski T, Biederman J, Buitelaar JK, Ramos-Quiroga JA, et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nat rRev Dis Primers. 2015;1:15020. doi: 10.1038/nrdp.2015.20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asherson P, Buitelaar J, Faraone SV, Rohde LA. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(6):568–78. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30032-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Faraone SV, Biederman J, Mick E. The age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of follow-up studies. Psychol Med. 2006;36(2):159–65. doi: 10.1017/S003329170500471X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fayyad J, De Graaf R, Kessler R, Alonso J, Angermeyer M, Demyttenaere K, et al. Cross-national prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Br J Psychiatry: J Ment Sci. 2007;190:402–9. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.034389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    •Moffitt TE, Houts R, Asherson P, Belsky DW, Corcoran DL, Hammerle M, et al. Is adult ADHD a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from a four-decade longitudinal cohort study. Am J Psychiatry. 2015;172(10):967–77. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.14101266. The first time that the late-onset ADHD was reported in an analysis of a four-decade longitudinal cohort.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    •Caye A, Rocha TB, Anselmi L, Murray J, Menezes AM, Barros FC, et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder trajectories from childhood to young adulthood: evidence from a birth cohort supporting a late-onset syndrome. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73(7):705–12. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0383. A Brazilian longitudinal cohort found similar results in regard to the late-onset ADHD and tested for multiple confounding factors in secondary analyses.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    •Agnew-Blais JC, Polanczyk GV, Danese A, Wertz J, Moffitt TE, Arseneault L. Evaluation of the persistence, remission, and emergence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in young adulthood. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73(7):713–20. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0465. An UK longitudinal cohort found similar results in regard to the late-onset ADHD and reported factors from childhood related to this trajectory.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    APA. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3th ed.). 1980.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    APA. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). 1994.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1968.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Polanczyk GV, Willcutt EG, Salum GA, Kieling C, Rohde LA. ADHD prevalence estimates across three decades: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(2):434–42. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyt261.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barbaresi WJ, Weaver AL, Voigt RG, Killian JM, Katusic SK. Comparing methods to determine persistence of childhood adhd into adulthood: a prospective, population-based study. J Atten Disord. 2015. doi: 10.1177/1087054715618791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Weiss G, Hechtman L, Milroy T, Perlman T. Psychiatric status of hyperactives as adults: a controlled prospective 15-year follow-up of 63 hyperactive children. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1985;24(2):211–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mannuzza S, Klein RG, Bessler A, Malloy P, LaPadula M. Adult psychiatric status of hyperactive boys grown up. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155(4):493–8. doi: 10.1176/ajp.155.4.493.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barkley RA, Fischer M, Smallish L, Fletcher K. The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 2002;111(2):279–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yan W. An investigation of adult outcome of hyperactive children in Shanghai. Chin Med J. 1996;109(11):877–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Biederman J, Petty CR, Clarke A, Lomedico A, Faraone SV. Predictors of persistent ADHD: an 11-year follow-up study. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45(2):150–5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.06.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Biederman J, Petty CR, O’Connor KB, Hyder LL, Faraone SV. Predictors of persistence in girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results from an 11-year controlled follow-up study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2012;125(2):147–56. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01797.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cheung CH, Rijdijk F, McLoughlin G, Faraone SV, Asherson P, Kuntsi J. Childhood predictors of adolescent and young adult outcome in ADHD. J Psychiatr Res. 2015;62:92–100. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.01.011.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Francx W, Zwiers MP, Mennes M, Oosterlaan J, Heslenfeld D, Hoekstra PJ, et al. White matter microstructure and developmental improvement of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, Allied Disciplines. 2015. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12379.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gittelman R, Mannuzza S, Shenker R, Bonagura N. Hyperactive boys almost grown up. I. Psychiatric status. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1985;42(10):937–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chang WLY, Qian Q, Tang H, Wang Y. Related factors of early adulthood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Chin Ment Health J. 2011;25(12):5.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    •Sibley MH, Swanson JM, Arnold LE, Hechtman LT, Owens LE, Stehli A et al. Defining ADHD symptom persistence in adulthood: optimizing sensitivity and specificity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2016;In press. This was the first study to analyze a wide range of ADHD persistence definitions and test for the accuracy of those definitions within one clinical sample. Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Matte B, Anselmi L, Salum GA, Kieling C, Goncalves H, Menezes A, et al. ADHD in DSM-5: a field trial in a large, representative sample of 18- to 19-year-old adults. Psychol Med. 2015;45(2):361–73. doi: 10.1017/S0033291714001470.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Russel A, Barkley MF. ADHD in adults: what the science says. New York: Guilford Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Endicott J, Spitzer RL, Fleiss JL, Cohen J. The global assessment scale. A procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbance. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1976;33(6):766–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Guy W. ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology. Rockville, MD: US Department of Heath, Education, and Welfare Public Health Service Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration; 1976.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hall RC. Global assessment of functioning. A modified scale. Psychosomatics. 1995;36(3):267–75. doi: 10.1016/S0033-3182(95)71666-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sibley MH, Pelham WE, Molina BS, Gnagy EM, Waxmonsky JG, Waschbusch DA, et al. When diagnosing ADHD in young adults emphasize informant reports, DSM items, and impairment. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012;80(6):1052–61. doi: 10.1037/a0029098.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fabiano GA, Pelham Jr WE, Waschbusch DA, Gnagy EM, Lahey BB, Chronis AM, et al. A practical measure of impairment: psychometric properties of the impairment rating scale in samples of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and two school-based samples. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol: Off J Soc Clin Child Adolesc Psychol, Am Psychol Assoc, Div 53. 2006;35(3):369–85. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3503_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cohen P, Cohen J. The clinician’s illusion. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1984;41(12):1178–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Angold A, Costello EJ, Erkanli A. Comorbidity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, Allied Disciplines. 1999;40(1):57–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Du Fort GG, Newman SC, Bland RC. Psychiatry comorbidity and treatment seeking: sources of selection bias in the study of clinical populations. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1993;181(8):467–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eklund H, Cadman T, Findon J, Hayward H, Howley D, Beecham J, et al. Clinical service use as people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder transition into adolescence and adulthood: a prospective longitudinal study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16:248. doi: 10.1186/s12913-016-1509-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Higgins J AD, Sterne JAC. Chapter 8: assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT GS, editor. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. 5.1.0 ed.: The Cochrane Collaboration; 2011.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Szklo M. Population-based cohort studies. Epidemiol Rev. 1998;20(1):81–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Breyer JL, Lee S, Winters KC, August GJ, Realmuto GM. A longitudinal study of childhood ADHD and substance dependence disorders in early adulthood. Psychol Addict Behav: J Soc Psychol Addict Behav. 2014;28(1):238–46. doi: 10.1037/a0035664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Klein RG, Mannuzza S, Olazagasti MA, Roizen E, Hutchison JA, Lashua EC, et al. Clinical and functional outcome of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 33 years later. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69(12):1295–303. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2012.271.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Guelzow BT, Loya F, Hinshaw SP. How persistent is ADHD into adulthood? Informant report and diagnostic thresholds in a female sample. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2016. doi: 10.1007/s10802-016-0174-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vitola ES, Bau CHD, Salum GA, Horta BL, Quevedo L, Barros FC, et al. Exploring DSM-5 ADHD criteria beyond young adulthood: phenomenology, psychometric properties and prevalence in a large three-decade birth cohort. Pyshcological Medicine. 2016 (in press).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Murphy P, Schachar R. Use of self-ratings in the assessment of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(7):1156–9. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.7.1156.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Miller CJ, Newcorn JH, Halperin JM. Fading memories: retrospective recall inaccuracies in ADHD. J Atten Disord. 2010;14(1):7–14. doi: 10.1177/1087054709347189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Breda V, Rovaris DL, Vitola ES, Mota NR, Blaya-Rocha P, Salgado CA, et al. Does collateral retrospective information about childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms assist in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults? Findings from a large clinical sample. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2016;50(6):557–65. doi: 10.1177/0004867415609421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    ••Caye A, Spadini AV, Karam RG, Grevet EH, Rovaris DL, Bau CH, et al. Predictors of persistence of ADHD into adulthood: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016. doi: 10.1007/s00787-016-0831-8. First systematic review of childhood predictors of ADHD persistence. Provides summarized estimates of risk with meta-analytic techniques.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Alegria M, Lin JY, Green JG, Sampson NA, Gruber MJ, Kessler RC. Role of referrals in mental health service disparities for racial and ethnic minority youth. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51(7):703–11 e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2012.05.005.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Madsen KB, Ersboll AK, Olsen J, Parner E, Obel C. Geographic analysis of the variation in the incidence of ADHD in a country with free access to healthcare: a Danish cohort study. Int J Health Geogr. 2015;14:24. doi: 10.1186/s12942-015-0018-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Charach A, Ickowicz A, Schachar R. Stimulant treatment over five years: adherence, effectiveness, and adverse effects. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43(5):559–67. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200405000-00009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Roy A, Hechtman L, Arnold LE, Sibley MH, Molina BS, Swanson JM et al. Childhood factors affecting persistence and desistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adulthood: results from the MTA. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2016;In press.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jensen PS, Arnold LE, Swanson JM, Vitiello B, Abikoff HB, Greenhill LL, et al. 3-year follow-up of the NIMH MTA study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;46(8):989–1002. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3180686d48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Molina BS, Hinshaw SP, Swanson JM, Arnold LE, Vitiello B, Jensen PS, et al. The MTA at 8 years: prospective follow-up of children treated for combined-type ADHD in a multisite study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;48(5):484–500. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819c23d0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sasser TR, Kalvin CB, Bierman KL. Developmental trajectories of clinically significant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms from grade 3 through 12 in a high-risk sample: predictors and outcomes. J Abnorm Psychol. 2016;125(2):207–19. doi: 10.1037/abn0000112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Larsson H, Dilshad R, Lichtenstein P, Barker ED. Developmental trajectories of DSM-IV symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: genetic effects, family risk and associated psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, Allied Disciplines. 2011;52(9):954–63. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02379.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pingault JB, Viding E, Galera C, Greven CU, Zheng Y, Plomin R, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on the developmental course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms from childhood to adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(7):651–8. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.0469.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Howard AL, Strickland NJ, Murray DW, Tamm L, Swanson JM, Hinshaw SP, et al. Progression of impairment in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through the transition out of high school: contributions of parent involvement and college attendance. J Abnorm Psychol. 2016;125(2):233–47. doi: 10.1037/abn0000100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Riglin L, Collishaw S, Thapar AK, Dalsgaard S, Langley K, Smith GD, et al. Association of Genetic Risk Variants With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Trajectories in the General Population. JAMA Psychiat. 2016 (in press).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Loe IM, Feldman HM. Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007;32(6):643–54. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsl054.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kuriyan AB, Pelham Jr WE, Molina BS, Waschbusch DA, Gnagy EM, Sibley MH, et al. Young adult educational and vocational outcomes of children diagnosed with ADHD. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2013;41(1):27–41. doi: 10.1007/s10802-012-9658-z.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Biederman J, Faraone SV. The effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on employment and household income. MedGenMed: Medscape Gen Med. 2006;8(3):12.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Altszuler AR, Page TF, Gnagy EM, Coxe S, Arrieta A, Molina BS, et al. Financial dependence of young adults with childhood ADHD. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2016;44(6):1217–29. doi: 10.1007/s10802-015-0093-9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Groenman AP, Oosterlaan J, Rommelse N, Franke B, Roeyers H, Oades RD, et al. Substance use disorders in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a 4-year follow-up study. Addiction. 2013;108(8):1503–11. doi: 10.1111/add.12188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lichtenstein P, Halldner L, Zetterqvist J, Sjolander A, Serlachius E, Fazel S, et al. Medication for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and criminality. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(21):2006–14. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1203241.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Steinhausen HC, Bisgaard C. Substance use disorders in association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, co-morbid mental disorders, and medication in a nationwide sample. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol:J Eur Coll Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;24(2):232–41. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.11.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Levy S, Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Weaver AL, Killian JM, Voigt RG, et al. Childhood ADHD and risk for substance dependence in adulthood: a longitudinal, population-based study. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(8), e105640. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105640.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sibley MH, Pelham WE, Molina BS, Gnagy EM, Waschbusch DA, Biswas A, et al. The delinquency outcomes of boys with ADHD with and without comorbidity. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2011;39(1):21–32. doi: 10.1007/s10802-010-9443-9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kieling RR, Szobot CM, Matte B, Coelho RS, Kieling C, Pechansky F, et al. Mental disorders and delivery motorcycle drivers (motoboys): a dangerous association. Eur Psychiatry: J Assoc Eur Psychiatrists. 2011;26(1):23–7. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.03.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Chang Z, Lichtenstein P, D’Onofrio BM, Sjolander A, Larsson H. Serious transport accidents in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the effect of medication: a population-based study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(3):319–25. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.4174.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Thompson AL, Molina BS, Pelham Jr W, Gnagy EM. Risky driving in adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007;32(7):745–59. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsm002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cortese S, Faraone SV, Bernardi S, Wang S, Blanco C. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity: epidemiological study. Br J Psychiatry: J Ment Sci. 2013;203(1):24–34. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.112.123299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cortese S, Ramos Olazagasti MA, Klein RG, Castellanos FX, Proal E, Mannuzza S. Obesity in men with childhood ADHD: a 33-year controlled, prospective, follow-up study. Pediatrics. 2013;131(6):e1731–8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-0540.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Barkley RA, Fischer M, Smallish L, Fletcher K. Young adult outcome of hyperactive children: adaptive functioning in major life activities. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;45(2):192–202. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000189134.97436.e2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Biederman J, Spencer T, Lomedico A, Day H, Petty CR, Faraone SV. Deficient emotional self-regulation and pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a family risk analysis. Psychol Med. 2012;42(3):639–46. doi: 10.1017/S0033291711001644.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Danckaerts M, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, Dopfner M, Hollis C, et al. The quality of life of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;19(2):83–105. doi: 10.1007/s00787-009-0046-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    ••Dalsgaard S, Ostergaard SD, Leckman JF, Mortensen PB, Pedersen MG. Mortality in children, adolescents, and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide cohort study. Lancet. 2015. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(14)61684-6. An analysis of health records found a significant association between ADHD and overall mortality.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    ••Erskine HE, Norman, R. E., Ferrari, A. J., Chan, G. K., Copeland, W. E., Whiteford, H. A., Scott, J. G. Long-term outcomes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2016;In press. A comprehensive systematic review of long-term outcomes of ADHD and conduct disorder. Provides summarized estimates of risk with meta-analytic techniques.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    ••Hechtman L, Swanson JM, Sibley MH, Stehli A, Owens BO, Mitchell JT, et al. Functional adult outcomes 16 years after childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: MTA results. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2016.07.774. A report on long-term outcomes of ADHD children and controls within the larger clinical trial on the field and its relationship with symptom persistence and desistance.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zhu JL, Olsen J, Liew Z, Li J, Niclasen J, Obel C. Parental smoking during pregnancy and ADHD in children: the Danish national birth cohort. Pediatrics. 2014;134(2):e382–8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rommel AS, Halperin JM, Mill J, Asherson P, Kuntsi J. Protection from genetic diathesis in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: possible complementary roles of exercise. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013;52(9):900–10. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.05.018.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mohr-Jensen C, Steinhausen HC. A meta-analysis and systematic review of the risks associated with childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on long-term outcome of arrests, convictions, and incarcerations. Clin Psychol Rev. 2016;48:32–42. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2016.05.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Satterfield JH, Satterfield BT, Schell AM. Therapeutic interventions to prevent delinquency in hyperactive boys. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1987;26(1):56–64. doi: 10.1097/00004583-198701000-00012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Satterfield JH, Schell A. A prospective study of hyperactive boys with conduct problems and normal boys: adolescent and adult criminality. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(12):1726–35. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199712000-00021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nogueira M, Bosch R, Valero S, Gomez-Barros N, Palomar G, Richarte V, et al. Early-age clinical and developmental features associated to substance use disorders in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. Compr Psychiatry. 2014;55(3):639–49. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.12.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mannuzza S, Klein RG, Truong NL, Moulton 3rd JL, Roizen ER, Howell KH, et al. Age of methylphenidate treatment initiation in children with ADHD and later substance abuse: prospective follow-up into adulthood. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(5):604–9. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07091465.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Molina BS, Hinshaw SP, Eugene Arnold L, Swanson JM, Pelham WE, Hechtman L, et al. Adolescent substance use in the multimodal treatment study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a function of childhood ADHD, random assignment to childhood treatments, and subsequent medication. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013;52(3):250–63. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2012.12.014.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sibley MH, Pelham WE, Molina BS, Coxe S, Kipp H, Gnagy EM, et al. The role of early childhood ADHD and subsequent CD in the initiation and escalation of adolescent cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. J Abnorm Psychol. 2014;123(2):362–74. doi: 10.1037/a0036585.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Doernberg E, Hollander E. Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ASD and ADHD): DSM-5, ICD-10, and ICD-11. CNS spectrums. 2016:1–5. doi: 10.1017/S1092852916000262.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur Caye
    • 1
  • James Swanson
    • 2
  • Anita Thapar
    • 3
  • Margaret Sibley
    • 4
  • Louise Arseneault
    • 5
  • Lily Hechtman
    • 6
  • L. Eugene Arnold
    • 7
  • Janni Niclasen
    • 8
    • 9
  • Terrie Moffitt
    • 10
  • Luis Augusto Rohde
    • 1
    • 11
    • 12
    Email author
  1. 1.ADHD Outpatient Program, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Department of PsychiatryUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  3. 3.MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and GenomicsCardiff UniversityCardiffUK
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health at the Florida International UniversityHerbert Wertheim College of MedicineMiamiUSA
  5. 5.MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and NeuroscienceKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  6. 6.Department of PsychiatryMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  7. 7.Department of Psychiatry, Nisonger CenterOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  8. 8.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  9. 9.Centre for Collaborative HealthAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  10. 10.Department of Psychology and NeuroscienceDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  11. 11.National Institute of Developmental Psychiatry for Children and AdolescentsSão PauloBrazil
  12. 12.Serviço de Psiquiatria da Infância e AdolescênciaHospital de Clinicas de Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil

Personalised recommendations