Current Psychiatry Reports

, 18:109

Schools and Disasters: Safety and Mental Health Assessment and Interventions for Children

  • Betty S. Lai
  • Ann-Margaret Esnard
  • Sarah R. Lowe
  • Lori Peek
Child and Family Disaster Psychiatry (B Pfefferbaum, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Child and Family Disaster Psychiatry

Abstract

This article draws on experiences and lessons from global disasters and utilizes the United Nations Comprehensive School Safety Framework to highlight the necessary role of safe schools in protecting children, as well as adult staff, from the immediate threats and long-term implications of disasters. Specifically, we focus on three well-established pillars of school safety: Pillar I: Safe Learning Facilities; Pillar II: Disaster Management; and Pillar III: Risk Reduction and Resilience Education. In addition, we propose a potential fourth pillar, which underscores the function of schools in postdisaster mental health assessment and intervention for children. We argue that schools offer a central location and trusted institutional space for mental health assessment and intervention after disasters. We also examine the important linkages between schools, child mental health, and household and family recovery. We conclude with recommendations for filling gaps in research and practice related to ensuring the safety of schools and the associated health and well-being of children in the face of future disasters.

Keywords

Disasters Children Schools Resilience Risk reduction Safety Assessment Intervention Posttraumatic stress 

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    ••U.N.I.S.D.R. Comprehensive school safety. In: Reduction UNOfDR, editor.2014. This document describes the three pillars of comprehensive school safety as a means of reducing children’s risks from hazards.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fothergill A, Peek L. Children of Katrina. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press; 2015.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Peek L. Children and disasters: understanding vulnerability, developing capacities, and promoting resilience—an introduction. Children, Youth Environ. 2008;18(1):1–29.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sichuan earthquake: one year report. In: Fund UNCs, editor.: United Nations Children’s Fund; 2009.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Annual Report 2012. In: I.F.R.C., editor. Geneva, Switzerland: I.F.R.C.; 2012. p. 36.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schonbardt S. Paving a path to recovery: some issues worth watching as the Philippines moves down the road to recovery after Typhoon Haiyan. The Wall Street Journal. 2013. http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303653004579211483596866854. Accessed December 2013.
  7. 7.
    China: End quake zone abuses: officials still harassing relatives, arresting activists, obstructing media. Human Rights Watch. 2009 6 May 2009.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Act HER. Hurricane Education Recovery Act: Elementary and Secondary Education Hurricane Relief. 2007. https://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/guid/secletter/051230Bill.pdf. Accessed December 9, 2015.
  9. 9.
    What it takes to rebuild a village after a disaster: stories from internally displaced children and families of Hurricane Katrina and their lessons on our nation. In: Fund CsD, editor.: Children’s Defense Fund; 2009.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Scrimin S, Axia G, Capello F, Moscardino U, Steinberg AM, Pynoos RS. Posttraumatic reactions among injured children and their caregivers 3 months after the terrorist attack in Beslan. Psychiatry Res. 2006;141:333–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Scrimin S, Moscardino U, Capello F, Axia G. Attention and memory in school-age children surviving the terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2009;38(3):402–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dyregrov A, Salloum A, Kristensen P, Dyregrov K. Grief and traumatic grief in children in the context of mass trauma. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2015;17(6). doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0577-x.
  13. 13.
    Peek L, Stough LM. Children with disabilities in the context of disaster: a social vulnerability perspective. Child Dev. 2010;81(4):1260–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    FEMA. Guide for developing high-quality school emergency operation plans. In: FEMA, editor. Washington, D.C.: FEMA; 2013.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Robinson SE. School district partner choice in emergency management collaboration. Risk, Hazards Crisis Public Policy. 2011;2(2):85–101. doi:10.2202/1944-4079.1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mutch C. The role of schools in disaster settings: learning from the 2010–2011 New Zealand earthquakes. Int J Educ Dev. 2015;41:283–91. doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2014.06.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Robinson SE. School districts and disaster expertise: what types of school districts consult emergency management professionals? J Emerg Manag. 2012;10(1):63–72. doi:10.5055/jem.2012.0087. 10p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Responding to the needs of children and families following disaster. American Psychological Association. 2010. http://www.apa.org/research/action/disaster.aspx.
  19. 19.
    Needle S, Wright J. Ensuring the health of children in disasters. Pediatrics. 2015;136(5).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pfefferbaum B, Jacobs AK, Houston JB, Griffin N. Children’s disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2015;17(7):57. doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0597-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bokszczanin A. Social support provided by adolescents following a disaster and perceived social support, sense of community at school, and proactive coping. Anxiety, Stress Coping. 2012;25(5):575–92. doi:10.1080/10615806.2011.622374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brookmeyer KA, Henrich CC, Cohen G, Shahar G. Israeli adolescents exposed to community and terror violence: the protective role of social support. J Early Adolesc. 2010;31(4):577–603. doi:10.1177/0272431610366247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Esnard A-M, Sapat A. Disasters, diasporas, and host communities: insights in the aftermath of the Haiti earthquake. J Disaster Res. 2011;6(3):331–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sapat A, Esnard A-M. Displacement and disaster recovery: transnational governance and socio-legal issues following the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy. 2012;3(1):1.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Esnard A-M, Sapat A. Displaced by disasters: recovery and resilience in a globalizing world. Taylor and Francis: Routledge Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    2009 Disasters in numbers. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. 2010. http://www.unisdr.org/files/12470_2009disasterfigures.pdf. Accessed 03 Feb 2014.
  27. 27.
    FEMA. Youth preparedness: implementing a community-based program. In: FEMA, editor. Washington, D.C.: FEMA; N.D.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Back E, Cameron, C., Tanner, T. Children and disaster risk reduction: taking stock and moving forward. UNICEF, Geneva, Switzerland. 2009. http://toolkit.ineesite.org/resources/ineecms/uploads/1057/Children_and_Disaster_Risk_Reduction.pdf. Accessed June 24 2015.
  29. 29.
    ActionAid. Disaster risk reduction through schools: a groundbreaking project. In: International A, editor. Johannesburg, South Africa: ActionAid International; 2009.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wisner B. Let our children teach us! A review of the role of education and knowledge in disaster risk reduction. ISDR System Thematic Cluster/Platform on Knowledge and Education. Bangalore, India: Books for Change; 2006.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    SHOREline. SHOREline: youth helping youth recover from disaster. National Center for Disaster Preparedness - Earth Institute at Columbia University. 2016. http://ncdp.columbia.edu/microsite-page/shoreline/shoreline-home/.
  32. 32.
    Braun-Lewensohn O. Coping and social support in children exposed to mass trauma. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2015;17(6). doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0576-y.
  33. 33.
    La Greca AM, Silverman WK, Vernberg EM, Prinstein MJ. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress in children after Hurricane Andrew: a prospective study. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996;64(4):712–23. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.66.6.883.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ozer EJ. The impact of violence on urban adolescents: longitudinal effects of perceived school connection and family support. J Adolesc Res. 2005;20(2):167–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goenjian AK, Molina L, Steinberg AM, Fairbanks LA, Alvarez ML, Goenjian HA, et al. Posttraumatic stress and depressive reactions among Nicaraguan adolescents after Hurricane Mitch. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(5):788–94. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.5.788.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    •Lai BS, Auslander BA, Fitzpatrick SL, Podkowirow V. Disasters and depressive symptoms in children: a review. Child Youth Care Forum. 2014;43(4):489–504. doi:10.1007/s10566-014-9249-y. This article attempts to identify a profile for youth at risk for depression postdisaster, and calls for a unifying theory.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lai BS, Kelley ML, Harrison KM, Thompson JE, Self-Brown S. Posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms among children after Hurricane Katrina: a latent profile analysis. J Child Fam Stud. 2015;24(5):1262–70. doi:10.1007/s10826-014-9934-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    ••Weems CF, Scott BG, Taylor LK, Cannon MF, Romano DM, Perry AM. A theoretical model of continuity in anxiety and links to academic achievement in disaster-exposed school children. Development and psychopathology. 2013;25(3):729–37. doi:10.1017/s0954579413000138. This article develops a theory in a quest to link academic achievement and mental health symptoms.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Felix E, You S, Vernberg E, Canino G. Family influences on the long term post-disaster recovery of Puerto Rican youth. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2013;41(1):111–24. doi:10.1007/s10802-012-9654-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fairbrother G, Stuber J, Galea S, Fleischman AR, Pfefferbaum B. Posttraumatic stress reactions in New York City children after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Ambul Pediatr. 2003;3(6):304–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Osofsky HJ, Osofsky JD, Kronenberg M, Brennan A, Hansel TC. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after Hurricane Katrina: predicting the need for mental health services. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2009;79(2):212–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    McLaughlin KA, Fairbank JA, Gruber MJ, Jones RT, Osofsky JD, Pfefferbaum B, et al. Trends in serious emotional disturbance among youths exposed to Hurricane Katrina. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;49(10):990–1000.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Adams ZW, Sumner JA, Danielson CK, McCauley JL, Resnick HS, Gros K, et al. Prevalence and predictors of PTSD and depression among adolescent victims of the Spring 2011 tornado outbreak. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014;55(9):1047–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Osofsky JD, Osofsky HJ, Weems CF, King LS, Hansel TC. Trajectories of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among youth exposed to both natural and technological disasters. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015;56(12):1347–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Masten AS, Narayan AJ. Child development in the context of disaster, war, and terrorism: pathways of risk and resilience. Annu Rev Psychol. 2011;62:227–57.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Galea S, Brewin CR, Gruber M, Jones RT, King DW, King LA, et al. Exposure to hurricane-related stressors and mental illness after Hurricane Katrina. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(12):1427–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Galea S, Tracy M, Norris F, Coffey SF. Financial and social circumstances and the incidence and course of PTSD in Mississippi during the first two years after Hurricane Katrina. J Trauma Stress. 2008;21(4):357–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ruggiero KJ, Gros K, McCauley JL, Resnick HS, Morgan M, Kilpatrick DG, et al. Mental health outcomes among adults in Galveston and Chambers counties after Hurricane Ike. Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6(1):26–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kaniasty K, Norris FH. A test of the social support deterioration model in the context of natural disaster. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1993;64(3):395–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lai BS, La Greca AM, Llabre MM. Children’s sedentary activity after hurricane exposure. Psychol Trauma: Theory, Res, Pract Pol. 2014;6(3):280–9. doi:10.1037/a0033331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Felix E, Kaniasty K, You S, Canino G. Parent–child relationship quality and gender as moderators of the influence of hurricane exposure on physical health among children and youth. J Pediatr Psychol. 2016;41(1):73–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    La Greca AM, Lai BS, Llabre MM, Silverman WK, Vernberg EM, Prinstein MJ. Children’s postdisaster trajectories of PTS symptoms: predicting chronic distress. Child Youth Care Forum. 2013;42(4):351–69. doi:10.1007/s10566-013-9206-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Self-Brown S, Lai BS, Thompson JE, McGill T, Kelley ML. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom trajectories in Hurricane Katrina affected youth. J Affect Disord. 2013;147(1–3):198–204. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.11.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hadi F, Lai BS, Habre M. Life outcomes influenced by war-related experiences during the Gulf crisis. Anxiety, Stress Coping. 2014;27(2):156–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ronan KR, Johnston DM. Promoting community resilience in disasters: the role for schools, youth, and families. Springer Science: New York, NY; 2005.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lai BS, Alisic E, Lewis R, Ronan KR. Approaches to the assessment of children in the context of disasters. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2016;18(5). doi:10.1007/s11920-016-0683-4.
  57. 57.
    Fast facts: what are the new back to school statistics for 2015? Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics; 2015.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lai BS, La Greca AM, Auslander BA, Short MB. Children’s symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression after a natural disaster: comorbidity and risk factors. J Affect Disord. 2013;146(1):71–8. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.08.041.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Weems CF, Taylor LK, Cannon MF, Marino RC, Romano DM, Scott BG, et al. Post traumatic stress, context, and the lingering effects of the Hurricane Katrina disaster among ethnic minority youth. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2009;38(1):49–56. doi:10.1007/s10802-009-9352-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Spell AW, Kelley ML, Wang J, Self-Brown S, Davidson KL, Pellegrin A, et al. The moderating effects of maternal psychopathology on children’s adjustment post-Hurricane Katrina. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2008;37(3):553–63. doi:10.1080/15374410802148210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fairbank JA, Fairbank DW. Epidemiology of child traumatic stress. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2009;11:289–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hoven CW, Duarte CS, Lucas CP, Wu P, Mandell DJ, Goodwin RD, et al. Psychopathology among New York City public school children 6 months after September 11. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(5):545–51. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.5.545.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    •Pfefferbaum B, Weems C, Scott B, Nitiéma P, Noffsinger M, Pfefferbaum R, et al. Research methods in child disaster studies: a review of studies generated by the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks; the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami; and Hurricane Katrina. Child Youth Care Forum. 2013;42(4):285–337. doi:10.1007/s10566-013-9211-4. This article reviews the diversity of methods used to explore children’s postdisaster mental health and provides suggestions for further research to advance the field.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Pfefferbaum B, Sweeton JL, Newman E, Varma V, Noffsinger MA, Shaw JA, et al. Child disaster mental health interventions, part II. Disaster Health. 2014;2(1):58–67. doi:10.4161/dish.27535.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jordans MJ, Pigott H, Tol WA. Interventions for children affected by armed conflict: a systematic review of mental health and psychosocial support in low- and middle-income countries. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2016;18(1):9. doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0648-z.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pfefferbaum B, Sweeton JL, Newman E, Varma V, Nitiéma P, Shaw JA, et al. Child disaster mental health interventions, part I: techniques, outcomes, and methodological considerations. Disaster Health. 2014;2(1):11–0. doi:10.4161/dish.27534.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Jaycox LH, Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Walker DW, Langley AK, Gegenheimer KL, et al. Children’s mental health care following Hurricane Katrina: a field trial of trauma-focused psychotherapies. J Trauma Stress. 2010;23(2):223–31. doi:10.1002/jts.20518.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pfefferbaum B, North CS. Child disaster mental health services: a review of the system of care, assessment approaches, and evidence base for intervention. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2016;18(1):5. doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0647-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pynoos RS, Goenjian AK, Steinberg AM. Children and disasters: a developmental approach to posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998;52(S1):S82–91. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1819.1998.0520s5S129.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Textbook of disaster psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wolmer L, Hamiel D, Laor N. Preventing children’s posttraumatic stress after disaster with teacher-based intervention: a controlled study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2011;50(4):340–8.e2.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Meichenbaum D. Stress inoculation training for coping with stressors. Clin Psychol. 1996;49(4):4–7. doi:10.1037/e555362011-002.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gelkopf M, Berger R. A school-based, teacher-mediated prevention program (ERASE-Stress) for reducing terror-related traumatic reactions in Israeli youth: a quasi-randomized controlled trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;50(8):962–71. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02021.x. 10p.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Berger R, Gelkopf M. School-based intervention for the treatment of tsunami-related distress in children: a quasi-randomized controlled trial. Psychother Psychosom. 2009;78(6):364–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Goenjian AK, Karayan I, Pynoos RS, Minassian D, Najarian LM, Steinberg AM, et al. Outcome of psychotherapy among early adolescents after trauma. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154(4):536–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Goenjian AK, Walling D, Steinberg AM, Karayan I, Najarian LM, Pynoos R. A prospective study of posttraumatic stress and depressive reactions among treated and untreated adolescents 5 years after a catastrophic disaster. Am J Psychiatr. 2005;162(12):2302–8. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.12.2302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Berger R, Gelkopf M, Heineberg Y. A teacher-delivered intervention for adolescents exposed to ongoing and intense traumatic war-related stress: a quasi-randomized controlled study. J Adolesc Health. 2012;51(5):453–61. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.02.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Berger R, Pat-Horenczyk R, Gelkopf M. School-based intervention for prevention and treatment of elementary-students’ terror-related distress in Israel: a quasi-randomized controlled trial. J Trauma Stress. 2007;20(4):541–51. doi:10.1002/jts.20225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Salloum A, Overstreet S. Evaluation of individual and group grief and trauma interventions for children post disaster. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2008;37(3):495–507.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Chemtob CM, Nakashima JP, Hamada RS. Psychosocial intervention for postdisaster trauma symptoms in elementary school children: a controlled community field study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156(3):211–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jaycox LH, Tanielian TL, Sharma P, Morse L, Clum G, Stein BD. Schools’ mental health responses after hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Psychiatr Serv. 2007;58(10):1339–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nastasi BK, Overstreet S, Summerville M. School-based mental health services in post-disaster contexts: a public health framework. Sch Psychol Int. 2011;32(5):533–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Pfefferbaum B, Varma V, Nitiéma P, Newman E. Universal preventive interventions for children in the context of disasters and terrorism. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2014;23:363–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pullins LG, McCammon SL, Lamson AS, Wuensch KL, Mega L. School-based post-flood screening and evaluation: findings and challenges in one community. Stress, Trauma, Crisis. 2005;8:229–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fellowes M, Liu A. Federal allocations in response to Katrina, Rita, and Wilma: an update. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, Program MP;2006.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Johnson V, Ronan K. Classroom responses of New Zealand school teachers following the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Nat Hazards. 2014;72(2):1075–92. doi:10.1007/s11069-014-1053-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    UNISDR. Comprehensive school safety. In: UNISDR, editor. Brussels, Belgium: UNISDR; 2015.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    UNISDR. Hyogo framework for action 2005–2015: building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. In: UNISDR, editor. Brussels, Belgium: UNISDR; 2005.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    National Commission on Children and Disasters: 2010 report to the President and Congress. In: Disasters NCoCa, editor. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2010.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Betty S. Lai
    • 1
  • Ann-Margaret Esnard
    • 2
  • Sarah R. Lowe
    • 3
  • Lori Peek
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Public HealthGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Andrew Young School of Policy StudiesGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyMontclair State UniversityMontclairUSA
  4. 4.Department of SociologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations