A Review of Scales to Measure Social Anxiety Disorder in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies

  • Quincy J. J. Wong
  • Bree Gregory
  • Lauren F. McLellan
Anxiety Disorders (A Pelissolo, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Anxiety Disorders


To advance research into social anxiety disorder (SAD) and provide efficacious treatments for individuals with SAD, researchers and clinicians must have effective assessment instruments for identifying the disorder in terms of its diagnostic criteria, symptoms, and the presence of specific maintaining factors. This review highlights the main lines of existing adult and youth research on scales that form part of diagnostic instruments that assess SAD, scales that measure social anxiety symptoms, and scales that measure theory-based psychological maintaining factors associated with SAD. The review also highlights methodological issues that impact on the use of the aforementioned scales. The continued refinement and comparative evaluation of measures for SAD, culminating in the ascertainment of optimal measures, will improve the assessment and identification of the disorder. Improved identification of the disorder will contribute to the advancement of SAD research and treatment.


Social anxiety Social anxiety disorder Social phobia Assessment Measures Psychometric 



This study was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council Early Career Fellowship (APP1037618) awarded to Dr. Quincy J.J. Wong.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Bree Gregory and Lauren F. McLellan declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Quincy J.J. Wong reports grants from National Health and Medical Research Council.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

  1. 1.
    Ruscio AM, Brown TA, Chiu WT, Sareen J, Stein MB, Kessler RC. Social fears and social phobia in the United States: results from the national comorbidity survey replication. Psychol Med. 2008;38:15–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beesdo K, Bittner A, Pine DS, Stein MB, Höfler M, Lieb R, et al. Incidence of social anxiety disorder and the consistent risk for secondary depression in the first three decades of life. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:903–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wittchen H-U, Fehm L. Epidemiology and natural course of social fears and social phobia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2003;10:4–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clark DM, Wells A. A cognitive model of social phobia. In: Heimberg RG, Liebowitz MR, Hope DA, Schneier FR, editors. Social phobia: diagnosis, assessment and treatment. New York: Guilford Press; 1995. p. 69–93.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Heimberg RG, Brozovich FA, Rapee RM. A cognitive-behavioral model of social anxiety disorder: update and extension. In: Hofmann SG, DiBartolo PM, editors. Social anxiety: clinical, developmental, and social perspectives. New York: Academic; 2010. p. 395–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Morrison AS, Heimberg G. Social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2013;9:249–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rapee RM, Heimberg RG. A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behav Res Ther. 1997;35:741–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Clark DM, Ehlers A, Hackmann A, McManus F, Fennell M, Grey N, et al. Cognitive therapy versus exposure and applied relaxation in social phobia: a randomised control trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006;74:568–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rapee RM, Gaston JE, Abbott MJ. Testing the efficacy of theoretically derived improvements in the treatment of social phobia. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2009;77:317–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Garcia-Lopez LJ, Salvador MC, De Los Reyes A. Assessment of social anxiety in adolescents. In: Ranta K, La Greca AM, Garcia-Lopez LJ, Marttunen M, editors. Social anxiety and phobia in adolescents: development, manifestation, and intervention strategies. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 121–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.•
    Modini M, Abbott MJ, Hunt C. A systematic review of the psychometric properties of trait social anxiety self-report measures. J Psychopathol Behav. 2015. doi: 10.1007/s10862-015-9483-0. This paper provides a recent comprehensive evaluation of self-report measures of SAD symptoms for adults. Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brown TA, Di Nardo PA, Barlow DH. Anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV (ADIS-IV), lifetime version. Allbany: Grey-wind Publications; 1994.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW. Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders, patient edition, version 2.0. New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute, Biometrics Research Department; 1996.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 1994.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brown TA, Barlow DH. Anxiety and related disorders interview schedule for DSM-5 (ADIS-5), lifetime version. New York: Oxford University Press USA; 2014.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    First MB, Williams JBW, Karg RS, Spitzer RL. User’s guide for the structured clinical interview for DSM-5 disorders-research version (SCID-5-RV). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2015.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Robins LN, Wing J, Wittchen H-U, Helzer JE, Babor TF, Burke J, et al. The composite international diagnostic interview: an epidemiologic instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988;45:1069–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, et al. The mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59:22–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders—diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1993.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sunderland M, Slade T, Andrews G. Developing a short-form structured diagnostic interview for common mental disorders using signal detection theory. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2012;21:247–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    McCabe RE, Ashbaugh AR, Antony MM. Specific and social phobia. In: Antony MM, Barlow DH, editors. Handbook of assessment and treatment planning for psychological disorders. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 2010. p. 186–223.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rettew DC, Lynch AC, Achenbach TM, Dumenci L, Ivanova MY. Meta-analyses of agreement between diagnoses made from clinical evaluations and standardized diagnostic interviews. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2009;18:169–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Silverman WK, Albano AM. The anxiety disorders interview schedule for children for DSM-IV, child and parent versions. San Antonia: Psychological Corporation; 1996.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hien D, Matzner FJ, Sptizer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW. Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, child edition, version 1.0. New York: Columbia University; 1994.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent DA, Rao U, Flynn C, Moreci P, et al. Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children, present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1997;36:980–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shaffer D, Fisher P, Lucas C, Dulcan M, Schwab-Stone M. NIMH diagnostic interview schedule for children version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 2000;39:28–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Goodman R, Ford T, Richards H, Gatward R, Meltzer H. The development and well-being assessment: description and initial validation of an integrated assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2000;41:645–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ford T, Goodman R, Meltzer H. The British child and adolescent mental health survey 1999: the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 2003;42:1203–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Aebi M, Kuhn C, Metzger CW, Stringaris A, Goodman R, Steinhausen H. The use of the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA) in clinical practice: a randomized trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;21:559–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sheehan DV, Sheehan KH, Shytle RD, Janavs J, Bannon Y, Rogers JE, et al. Reliability and validity of the mini international neuropsychiatric interview for children and adolescents (MINI-KID). J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:313–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    De Los Reyes A. Strategic objectives for improving understanding of informant discrepancies in developmental psychopathology research. Dev Psychopathol. 2013;25:669–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hoffman LJ, Chu BC. Target problem (mis) matching: predictors and consequences of parent-youth agreement in a sample of anxious youth. J Anxiety Disord. 2015;31:11–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grills AE, Ollendick TH. Multiple informant agreement and the anxiety disorders interview schedule for parents and children. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 2003;42:30–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lyneham H, Rapee RM. Agreement between telephone and in-person delivery of a structured interview for anxiety disorders in children. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 2005;44:274–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    De Los Reyes A, Thomas SA, Goodman KL, Kundey SMA. Principles underlying the use of multiple informants’ reports. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2013;9:123–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liebowitz MR. Social phobia. Mod Probl Pharmacopsychiatry. 1987;22:141–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Davidson JRT, Miner CM, De Veaugh-Geiss J, Tupler LA, Colket JT, Potts NLS. The brief social phobia scale: a psychometric evaluation. Psychol Med. 1997;27:161–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fresco DM, Coles ME, Heimberg RG, Liebowitz MR, Hami S, Stein MB, et al. The Liebowitz social anxiety scale: a comparison of the psychometric properties of self-report and clinician-administered formats. Psychol Med. 2001;31:1025–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Anxiety Study Group. The pediatric anxiety rating scale (PARS): development and psychometric properties. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 2002;42:30–40.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Masia-Warner C, Storch EA, Pincus DB, Klein RG, Heimberg RG, Liebowitz MR. The Liebowitz social anxiety scale for children and adolescents: an initial psychometric investigation. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 2003;42:1076–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mattick RP, Clarke JC. Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behav Res Ther. 1998;36:455–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Carleton RN, Collimore KC, Asmundson GJG, McCabe RE, Rowa K, Antony MM. Refining and validating the social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale. Depress Anxiety. 2009;26:71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Menatti AR, Weeks JW, Carleton N, Morrison AS, Heimberg RG, Hope DA, et al. The social interaction phobia scale: continued support for the psychometric validity of the SIPS using clinical and non-clinical samples. J Anxiety Disord. 2015;32:46–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Peters L, Sunderland M, Andrews G, Rapee RM, Mattick RP. Development of a short form social interaction anxiety (SIAS) and social phobia scale (SPS) using nonparametric item response theory: the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6. Psychol Asses. 2012;24:66–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kupper N, Denollet J. Social anxiety in the general population: introducing abbreviated versions of SIAS and SPS. J Affect Disord. 2012;13:90–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fergus TA, Valentiner DP, McGrath PB, Gier-Lonsway SL, Kim HS. Short forms of the social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale. J Pers Assess. 2012;94:310–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Turner SM, Beidel DC, Dancu CV, Stanley MA. An empirically derived inventory to measure social fears and anxiety: the social phobia and anxiety inventory. Psychol Assess: A J Consult Clin Psychol. 1989;1:35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Turner SM, Dancu CV, Beidel DC. The social phobia and anxiety inventory. Canada: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.; 1996.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Roberson-Nay R, Strong DR, Nay WT, Beidel DC, Turner SM. Development of an abbreviated social phobia and anxiety inventory (SPAI) using item response theory: the SPAI-23. Psychol Assess. 2007;19:133–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schry AR, Roberson-Nay R, White SW. Measuring social anxiety in college students: a comprehensive evaluation of the psychometric properties of the SPAI-23. Psychol Assess. 2012;24:846–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    De Vente W, Majdandžić M, Voncken MJ, Beidel DC, Bögels SM. The SPAI-18, a brief version of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory: reliability and validity in clinically referred and non-referred samples. J Anxiety Disord. 2014;28:140–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Connor KM, Davidson JRT, Churchill LE, Sherwood A, Weisler RH, Foa E. Psychometric properties of the social phobia inventory (SPIN). Br J Psychiatry. 2000;17:379–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Campbell-Sills L, Espejo E, Ayers CR, Roy-Byrne P, Stein MB. Latent dimensions of social anxiety disorder: a re-evaluation of the social phobia inventory (SPIN). J Anxiety Disord. 2015;36:84–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Connor KM, Kobak KA, Churchill LE, Katzelnick D, Davidson JRT. Mini-SPIN: a brief screening assessment for generalised social anxiety disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2001;14:137–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Aderka IM, Pollack MH, Simon NM, Smits JA, Van Ameringen M, Stein MB, et al. Development of a briefer version of the social phobia inventory using item response theory: the mini-SPIN-R. Behav Ther. 2013;44:651–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Baker SL, Heinrichs N, Kim H, Hofmann SG. The Liebowitz social anxiety scale as a self-report instrument: a preliminary psychometric analysis. Behav Res Ther. 2002;40:701–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hayes SA, Miller NA, Hope DA, Heimberg RG, Juster HR. Assessing client progress session by session in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: the social anxiety session change index. Cognit Behav Pract. 2008;15:203–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dalrymple K, Martinez J, Tepe E, Young D, Chelminski I, Morgan T, et al. A clinically useful social anxiety disorder outcome scale. Compr Psychiatry. 2013;54:758–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    LeBeau RT, Glenn DE, Hanover LN, Beesdo-Baum K, Wittchen H-U, Craske MG. A dimensional approach to measuring anxiety for DSM-5. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2012;21:258–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Caballo VE, Salazar IC, Irurtia MJ, Arias B, Hofmann SG, CISO-A Research Team. The multidimensional nature and multicultural validity of a new measure of social anxiety: the social anxiety questionnaire for adults. Behav Ther. 2012;43:313–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    March JS, Parker JD, Sullivan K, Stallings P, Conners CK. The multidimensional anxiety scale for children (MASC): factor structure, reliability and validity. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1997;36:554–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    March JS, Sullivan K, Parker JD. Test retest reliability of the multidimensional anxiety scale for children. J Anxiety Disord. 1999;13:349–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    March JS. Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children. 2nd ed. Canada: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.; 2013.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Birmaher B, Brent DA, Chiappetta L, Bridge J, Monga S, Baugher M. Psychometric properties of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): a replication study. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1999;38:1230–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hale WW, Crocetti E, Raaijmakers QAW, Meeus WHJ. A meta-analysis of the cross-cultural psychometric properties of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED). J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;52:80–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Spence SH. Structure of anxiety symptoms among children: a confirmatory factor-analytic study. J Abnorm Psychol. 1997;10:280–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Spence SH. A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behav Res Ther. 1998;36:545–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Beidel DC, Turner SM, Morris TL. A new inventory to assess childhood social anxiety and phobia: the social phobia and anxiety inventory for children. Psychol Assess. 1995;7:73–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Beidel DC, Turner SM, Morris TL. Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children. Canada: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.; 1998.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bunnell BE, Beidel DC, Liu L, Joseph DL, Higa-McMillan C. The SPAIC-11 and SPAICP-11: two brief child- and parent-rated measures of social anxiety. J Anxiety Disord. 2015;36:103–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Higa CK, Fernandez SN, Nakamura BJ, Chorpita BF, Daleiden EL. Parental assessment of childhood social phobia: psychometric properties of the social phobia and anxiety inventory for children-parent report. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;35:590–7.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Garcia-Lopez LJ, Hidalgo MD, Beidel DC, Olivares J, Turner S. Brief form of the social phobia and anxiety inventory (SPAI-B) for adolescents. Eur J Psychol Assess. 2008;24:150–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    La Greca AM, Stone WL. Social anxiety scale for children-revised: factor structure and concurrent validity. J Clin Child Psychol. 1993;22:17–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    La Greca AM. Manual for the social anxiety scales for children and adolescents. Miami: University of Miami; 1998.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    La Greca AM, Lopez N. Social anxiety among adolescents: linkage with peer relations and friendships. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1998;26:83–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Johnson HS, Inderbitzen-Nolan H, Anderson ER. The Social Phobia Inventory: validity and reliability in an adolescent community sample. Psychol Assess. 2006;18:269–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Shachar I, Aderka IM, Gilboa-Schechtman E. The factor structure of the Liebowitz social anxiety scale for children and adolescents: development of a brief version. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2014;45:285–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Heimberg RG, Horner KJ, Juster HR, Safren SA, Brown EJ, Schneier FR, et al. Psychometric properties of the Liebowitz social anxiety scale. Psychol Med. 1999;29:199–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rodebaugh TL, Woods CM, Heimberg RG, Liebowitz MR, Schneier FR. The factor structure and screening utility of the social interaction anxiety scale. Psychol Assess. 2006;18:231–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rodebaugh TL, Heimberg RG, Brown PJ, Fernandez KC, Blanco C, Schneier FR, et al. More reasons to be straightforward: findings and norms for two scales relevant to social anxiety. J Anxiety Disord. 2011;25:623–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rodebaugh TL, Woods CM, Heimberg RG. The reverse of social anxiety is not always the opposite: the reverse-scored items of the social interaction anxiety scale do not belong. Behav Ther. 2007;38:192–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Heidenreich T, Schermelleh-Engel K, Schramm E, Hofmann SG, Stangier U. The factor structure of the social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale. J Anxiety Disord. 2011;25:579–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Carleton RN, Collimore KC, Asmundson GJ, McCabe RE, Rowa K, Antony MM. Spinning factors: factor analytic evaluation of the social phobia inventory in clinical and nonclinical undergraduate samples. J Anxiety Disord. 2010;24:94–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.•
    Carleton NR, Thibodeau MA, Weeks JW, Teale-Sapach MJN, McEvoy PM, Horswill SC, et al. Comparing short forms of the social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale. Psychol Assess. 2014;26:1116–26. This study directly compared scales (in this case the short forms of the SIAS and SPS) in order to determine optimal measures and provides an important example for future comparison studies. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fergus TA, Valentiner DP, Kim HS, McGrath PB. The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS) and the social phobia scale (SPS): a comparison of two short-form versions. Psychol Assess. 2014;26:1281–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Le Blanc AL, Bruce LC, Heimberg RG, Hope DA, Blanco C, Schneier FR, et al. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of two short forms of the social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale. Assessment. 2014;21:312–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Beesdo-Baum K, Klotshe J, Knappe S, Craske MG, Lebeau RT, Hoyer J, et al. Psychometric properties of the dimensional anxiety scales for DSM-V in an unselected sample of German treatment seeking patients. Depress Anxiety. 2012;29:1014–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Knappe S, Klotsche J, Strobel A, LeBeau RT, Craske MG, Wittchen H-U, et al. Dimensional anxiety scales for DSM-5: sensitivity to clinical severity. Eur Psychiatry. 2013;28:448–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Knappe S, Klotsche J, Heyde F, Hiob S, Siegert J, Hoyer J, et al. Test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change of the dimensional anxiety scales for DSM-5. CNS Spectr. 2014;19:256–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Anderson ER, Jordan JA, Smith AJ, Inderbitzen-Nolan HM. An examination of the MASC social anxiety scale in a non-referred sample of adolescents. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23:1098–105.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wei C, Hoff A, Villabo MA, Peterman J, Kendall PC, Piacentini J, et al. Assessing anxiety in youth with the multidimensional anxiety scale for children. J Clin Child Adolesc. 2014;43:566–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Spence SH, Sawyer MG, Sheffield J, Patton G, Bond L, Graetz B, et al. Does the absence of a supportive family environment influence the outcome of a universal intervention for the prevention of depression? Int J Environ Res Publ Health. 2014;11:5113–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hitchcock CA, Chavira DA, Stein MB. Recent findings in social phobia among children and adolescents. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2009;46:34–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Inderbitzen-Nolan H, Davies CA, McKeon N. Investigating the construct validity of the SPAI-C: comparing the sensitivity and specificity of the SPAI-C and the SAS-A. J Anxiety Disord. 2004;18:547–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kuusikko S, Pollock-Wurman R, Ebeling H, Hurtig T, Joskitt L, Mattila M-L, et al. Psychometric evaluation of social phobia and anxiety inventory for children (SPAI-C) and Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised (SASC-R). Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;18:116–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Herbert JD, Gaudiano BA, Rheingold AA, Moitra E, Myers VH, Dalrymple KL, et al. Cognitive behavior therapy for generalized social anxiety disorder in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23:167–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    March JS, EntusahA R, Rynn M, Albano AM, Tourian KA. A randomized controlled trial of venlafaxine ER versus placebo in pediatric social anxiety disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;15:1149–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Scaini S, Battaglia M, Bediel DC, Ogliari AA. meta-analysis of the cross-cultural psychometric properties of the social phobia and anxiety inventory for children (SPAI-C). J Anxiety Disord. 2012;26:182–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    DiBartolo PM, Grills AE. Who is best at predicting children’s anxiety in response to a social evaluative task? A comparison of child, parent, and teacher reports. J Anxiety Disord. 2006;20:630–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kristensen H, Torgersen S. Social anxiety disorder in 11-12-year-old children: the efficacy of screening and issues in parent–child agreement. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;15:163–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ranta K, Kaltiala-Heino R, Rantanen P, Marttunen M. The mini-SPIN: psychometric properties in an adolescent general population sample. Compr Psychiatry. 2012;53:630–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ranta K, Kaltiala-Heino R, Rantanen P, Tuomisto MT, Marttunen M. Screening social phobia in adolescents from general population: the validity of the social phobia inventory (SPIN) against a clinical interview. Eur Psychiatry. 2007;22:244–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mills AC, Grant DM, Lechner WV, Judah MR. Psychometric properties of the anticipatory social behaviours questionnaire. J Psychopathol Behav. 2013;35:346–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Vassilopoulos SP. Anticipatory processing in social anxiety. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2004;32:303–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ottenbreit ND, Dobson KS. Avoidance and depression: the construction of the cognitive-behavioral avoidance scale. Behav Res Ther. 2004;42:292–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Whiteside SPH, Gryczkowski M, Ale CM, Brown-Jacobsen AM, McCarthy DM. Development of child- and parent-report measures of behavioral avoidance related to childhood anxiety disorders. Behav Ther. 2013;44:325–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Turner SM, Johnson MR, Beidel DC, Heiser NA, Lydiard RB. The social thoughts and beliefs scale: a new inventory for assessing cognitions in social phobia. Psychol Assess. 2003;15:384–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Levinson CA, Rodebaugh TL, Lim MH, Fernandez KC. The core extrusion schema-revised: hiding oneself predicts severity of social interaction anxiety. Assessment. 2015. doi: 10.1177/1073191115596568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wong QJJ, Moulds ML. A new measure of the maladaptive self-beliefs in social anxiety: psychometric properties in a non-clinical sample. J Psychopathol Behav. 2011;33:273–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wong QJJ, Moulds ML, Rapee RM. Validation of the self-beliefs related to social anxiety scale: a replication and extension. Assessment. 2014;21:300–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Boden MT, John OP, Goldin PR, Werner K, Heimberg RG, Gross JJ. The role of maladaptive beliefs in cognitive behavioural therapy: evidence from social anxiety disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2012;50:287–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Schniering CA, Rapee RM. Development and validation of a measure of children’s automatic thoughts: the children’s automatic thoughts scale. Behav Res Ther. 2002;40:1091–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Schniering CA, Rapee RM. The structure of negative self-statements in children and adolescents: a confirmatory factor-analytic approach. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2004;32:95–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Scheier MF, Carver CS. The self-consciousness scales: a revised version for use with general populations. J Appl Soc Psychol. 1985;15:687–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Woody SR. Effects of focus of attention on anxiety levels and performance of individuals with social phobia. J Abnorm Psychol. 1996;10:61–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Govern JM, Marsch LA. Development and validation of the situational self-awareness scale. Conscious Cogn. 2001;10:366–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Cuming S, Rapee RM, Kemp N, Abbott MJ, Peters L, Gaston JE. A self report measure of subtle avoidance and safety behaviors relevant to social anxiety: development and psychometric properties. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23:879–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Thomas SA, Daruwala SE, Goepel KA, De Los Reyes A. Using the subtle avoidance frequency examination in adolescent social anxiety assessments. Child Youth Care Forum. 2012;41:547–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Fydrich T, Chambless DL, Perry KJ, Buergener F, Beazley MB. Behavioral assessment of social performance: a rating system for social phobia. Behav Res Ther. 1998;36:995–1010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Harb GC, Eng W, Zaider T, Heimberg RG. Behavioral assessment of public-speaking anxiety using a modified version of the social performance rating scale. Behav Res Ther. 2003;41:1373–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Fehm L, Hoyer J, Schneider G, Lindemann C, Klusmann U. Assessing post-event processing after social situations: a measure based on the cognitive model for social phobia. Anxiety Stress Copin. 2008;21:129–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wong QJJ. Psychometric evaluation of the English version of the Extended Post-event Processing Questionnaire. Anxiety Stress Copin. 2015;28:215–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hinrichsen H, Clark DM. Anticipatory processing in social anxiety: two pilot studies. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2003;34:205–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Gkika S, Wells A. How to deal with negative thoughts? A preliminary comparison of detached mindfulness and thought evaluation in socially anxious individuals. Cognit Ther Res. 2015;39:23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Edwards SL, Rapee RM, Franklin J. Post-event rumination and recall bias for a social performance event in high and low socially anxious individuals. Cognit Ther Res. 2003;27:603–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Penney ES, Abbott MJ. The impact of perceived standards on state anxiety, appraisal processes, and negative pre- and post-event rumination in social anxiety disorder. Cognit Ther Res. 2015;39:162–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Clark DM, Ehlers A, McManus F, Hackmann A, Fennell M, Campbell H, et al. Cognitive therapy versus fluoxetine in generalized social phobia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2003;1:1058–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hedman E, Mörtberg E, Hesser H, Clark DM, Lekander M, Andersson E, et al. Mediators in psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder: individual cognitive therapy compared to cognitive behavioural group therapy. Behav Res Ther. 2013;51:696–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Ottenbreit ND, Dobson KS, Quigley L. An examination of avoidance in major depression in comparison to social anxiety disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2014;56:82–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hofmann SG, DiBartolo PM. An instrument to assess self-statements during public speaking: scale development and preliminary psychometric properties. Behav Ther. 2000;31:499–515.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Rodebaugh TL. Hiding the self and social anxiety: the core extrusion schema measure. Cognit Ther Res. 2009;33:90–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wells A, Stopa L, Clark DM. Social cognition questionnaire. Unpublished. Oxford, U.K.: Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warnerford Hospital; 1993.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Fenigstein A, Scheier MF, Buss AH. Public and private self-consciousness: assessment and theory. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1975;43:522–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Bögels SM, Wijts P, Oort FJ, Sallaerts SJM. Psychodynamic psychotherapy versus cognitive behaviour therapy for social anxiety disorder: an efficacy and partial effectiveness trial. Depress Anxiety. 2014;31:363–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Lundh L, Öst L. Attentional bias, self-consciousness, and perfectionism in social phobia before and after cognitive-behaviour therapy. Scand J Behav Ther. 2010;30:4–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gaydukevych D, Kocovski NL. Effect of self-focused attention on post-event processing in social anxiety. Behav Res Ther. 2012;50:47–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Glick DM, Orsillo SM. Relationships among social anxiety, self-focused attention, and experiential distress and avoidance. J Evid-Based Psychother. 2011;11:1–12.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Jakymin AK, Harris LM. Self-focused attention and social anxiety. Aust J Psychol. 2012;64:61–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Rapee RM, Abbott MJ. Modelling relationships between cognitive variables during and following public speaking in participants with social phobia. Behav Res Ther. 2007;45:2977–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Clark DM, Butler G, Fennell M, Hackmann A, McManus F, Wells A. Social behaviours questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript; 1995Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    McManus F, Sacadura C, Clark DM. Why social anxiety persists: an experimental investigation of the role of safety behaviours as a maintaining factor. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2008;39:147–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Taylor CT, Alden LE. Safety behaviors and judgmental biases in social anxiety disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2010;48:226–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Taylor CT, Alden LE. To see ourselves as others see us: an experimental integration of the intra and interpersonal consequences of self-protection in social anxiety disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 2011;12:129–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Rapee RM, Lim L. Discrepancy between self- and observer ratings of performance in social phobics. J Abnorm Psychol. 1992;10:728–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Voncken MJ, Bögels SM. Social performance deficits in social anxiety disorder: reality during conversation and biased perception during speech. J Anxiety Disord. 2008;22:1384–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Stangier U, Heidenreich T, Schermelleh-Engel K. Safety behaviours and social performance in patients with generalised social phobia. J Cogn Psychother. 2006;20:17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Wong QJJ, Moulds ML. Impact of anticipatory processing versus distraction on multiple indices of anxiety in socially anxious individuals. Behav Res Ther. 2011;49:700–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Rachman S, Grüter-Andrew J, Shafran R. Post-event processing in social anxiety. Behav Res Ther. 2000;38:611–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Kocovski NL, Rector NA. Predictors of post-event rumination related to social anxiety. Cogn Behav Ther. 2007;43:1–11.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    McEvoy PM, Kingsep P. The post-event processing questionnaire in a clinical sample with social phobia. Behav Res Ther. 2006;44:1689–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Hodson KJ, McManus FV, Clark DM, Doll H. Can Clark and Wells’ (1995) cognitive model of social phobia be applied to young people? Behav Cogn Psychother. 2008;36:449–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.•
    Schreiber F, Höfling V, Stangier U, Bohn C, Steil R. A cognitive model of social phobia: applicability in a large adolescent sample. Int J Cogn Ther. 2012;5:341–58. This study provides a recent example of a test of whether an influential model of SAD in adults would be applicable to youth and illustrates the downward extension of adult SAD research and assessment instruments to young people. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Ranta K, Tuomisto MT, Kaltiala-Heino R, Rantanen P, Marttunen M. Cognition, imagery, and coping among adolescents with social phobia: testing the Clark and Wells model in the population. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2014;21:252–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Miers AC, Blöte AW, Heyne DA, Westenberg PM. Developmental pathways of social avoidance across adolescence: the role of social anxiety and negative cognition. J Anxiety Disord. 2014;28:787–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Sumter SR, Bokhorst CL, Westenberg PM. Social fears during adolescence: is there an increase in distress and avoidance? J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23:897–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Hogendoom SM, Wolters LH, Vervoort L, Prins PJM, Boer F, Kooij E, et al. Measuring negative and positive thoughts in children: an adaptation of the children’s automatic thoughts scale. Cognit Ther Res. 2010;34:467–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Higa CK, Daleiden EL. Social anxiety and cognitive biases in non-referred children: the interaction of self-focused attention and threat interpretation biases. J Anxiety Disord. 2008;22:441–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kley H, Tuschen-Caffier B, Heinrichs N. Manipulating self-focused attention in children with social anxiety disorder and in socially anxious and non-anxious children. J Exp Psychopathol. 2011;2:551–70.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Miers AC, Blöte AW, de Rooij M, Bokhorst CL, Westenberg PM. Trajectories of social anxiety during adolescence and relations with cognitions, social competence, and temperament. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2013;41:97–110.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Kley H, Tuschen-Caffier B, Heinrichs N. Safety behaviors, self-focused attention and negative thinking in children with social anxiety disorder, socially anxious and non-anxious children. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2012;43:548–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Cartwright-Hatton S, Hodges L, Porter J. Social anxiety in childhood: the relationship with self and other rated social skill. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2003;44:737–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Krämer M, Schmitz J, Heinrichs N, Tuschen-Caffier B. Self-evaluation, social and cognitive performance in children with social phobia. J Exp Psychopathol. 2011;2:586–600.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Schmitz J, Krämer M, Blechert J, Tuschen-Caffier B. Post-event processing in children with social phobia. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2010;38:911–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Schmitz J, Krämer M, Tuschen-Caffier B. Negative post-event processing and decreased self-appraisals of performance following social stress in childhood social anxiety: an experimental study. Behav Res Ther. 2011;49:789–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Garcia-Lopez LJ, Sáez-Castillo AJ, Beidel D, La Greca AM. Brief measures to screen for social anxiety in adolescents. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2015;36:562–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Olivares J, Sánchez-García R, López-Pina JA. The Liebowitz social anxiety scale for children and adolescents. Psicothema. 2009;21:486–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Schmits E, Heeren A, Quertemont E. The self-report version of the LSAS-CA: psychometric properties of the French version in a non-clinical adolescent sample. Psychol Belg. 2014;54:181–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Ogliari A, Scaini S, Kofler MJ, Lampis V, Zanoni A, Pesenti-Gritti P, et al. Psychometric properties of the social phobia and anxiety inventory for children (SPAI-C): a sample of Italian school-aged children from the general population. Eur J Psychol Assess. 2012;28:51–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Pina AA, Little M, Wynne H, Beidel DC. Assessing social anxiety in African American youth using the social phobia and anxiety inventory for children. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2014;42:311–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Nagata T, Nakajima T, Teo AR, Yamada H, Yoshimura C. Psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the social phobia inventory. Psychiat Clin Neurosci. 2014;67:160–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Heeren A, Wong QJJ, Ceschi G, Moulds ML, Philippot P. Probing the structural validity of the self-beliefs in social anxiety scale (SBSA): adaptation and validation in a French-speaking community sample. Can J Behav Sci. 2014;46:506–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Holly LE, Little M, Pina AA, Caterino LC. Assessment of anxiety symptoms in school children: a cross-sex and ethnic examination. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2015;43:297–309.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Skriner LC, Chu BC. Cross-ethnic measurement invariance of the SCARED and CES-D in a youth sample. Psychol Assess. 2014;26:332–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Wong QJJ, Moulds ML. An examination of the measurement equivalence of the brief fear of negative evaluation scale across individuals who identify with an Asian ethnicity and individuals who identify with a European ethnicity. Assessment. 2014;21:713–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Caballo VE, Salazar IC, Irurtia MJ, Arias B, Hofmann SG, CISO-A Research Team. Measuring social anxiety in 11 countries: development and validation of the social anxiety questionnaire for adults. Eur J Psychol Assess. 2010;26:95–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Caballo VE, Arias B, Salazar IC, Calderero M, Irurtia MJ, Ollendick TH. A new self-report assessment measure of social phobia/anxiety in children: the social anxiety questionnaire for children (SAQ-C24). Behav Psychol. 2012;20:485–503.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Caballo VE, Arias B, Salazar IC, Irurtia MJ, Hofmann SG, CISO-A Research Team. Psychometric properties of an innovative self-report measure: the social anxiety questionnaire for adults. Psychol Assess. 2015;27:997–1012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Quincy J. J. Wong
    • 1
  • Bree Gregory
    • 1
  • Lauren F. McLellan
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Emotional Health, Department of PsychologyMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations