The Long-Term Impact of Early Adversity on Late-Life Psychiatric Disorders
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Early adversity is a strong and enduring predictor of psychiatric disorders including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse or dependence, and posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the mechanisms of this effect are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize and integrate the current research knowledge pertaining to the long-term effects of early adversity on psychiatric disorders, particularly in late life. We explore definitional considerations including key dimensions of the experience such as type, severity, and timing of adversity relative to development. We then review the potential biological and environmental mediators and moderators of the relationships between early adversity and psychiatric disorders. We conclude with clinical implications, methodological challenges and suggestions for future research.
KeywordsStress Psychological Childhood maltreatment Childhood adversity Late life Psychiatric disorders Risk factors HPA function Immune dysregulation Adult stressors Gender Genetic markers Geriatric Psychiatry
Preparation of this report was supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs Advanced Fellowship Program in War Related and Unexplained Illness awarded to A. Gershon.
Conflict of Interest
Anda Gershon declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Keith Sudheimer declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Rabindra Tirouvanziam declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Leanne M. Williams declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Ruth O’Hara declares that she has no conflict of interest.
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