Current Psychiatry Reports

, 15:341

Refugee Children: Mental Health and Effective Interventions

Child and Adolescent Disorders (TD Benton, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Child and Adolescent Disorders

Abstract

The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field.

Keywords

Refugee Asylum-seeker Child Adolescent War Displacement Resettlement Mental health Post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD Trauma Psychotherapy Resilience Prevention Treatment Advocacy Child and adolescent disorders Psychiatry 

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as:• Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: Global Trends 2011. Available at http://www.unhcr.org/4fd6f87f9.html. Accessed September 2012.
  2. 2.
    United Nations High Commission on Refugees: Convention relating to the Status of Refugees Available at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/refugees.htm. Accessed September 2012.
  3. 3.
    United Nations General Assembly: Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Available at http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b3712c.html Accessed September 2012.
  4. 4.
    Raleigh C: Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset. Available at http://www.acleddata.com/. Accessed September 2012.
  5. 5.
    Marsh M, Purdin S, Navani S. Addressing sexual violence in humanitarian emergencies. Glob Public Health. 2006;1:133–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Morgos D, Worden JW, Gupta L. Psychosocial effects of war experiences among displaced children in southern Darfur. Omega. 2007;56:229–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Crepeau F, Jimenez E. Foreigners and the right to justice in the aftermath of 9/11. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2004;27:609–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Caulford P, D’Andrade J. Health care for Canada’s medically uninsured immigrants and refugees: whose problem is it? Can Fam Physician. 2012;58:725–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    de Jong JP, Scholte WF, Koeter MW, Hart AA. The prevalence of mental health problems in Rwandan and Burundese refugee camps. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000;102:171–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Razzouk D, Sharan P, Gallo C, et al. Scarcity and inequity of mental health research resources in low-and-middle income countries: a global survey. Health Policy. 2010;94:211–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Allden K, Jones L, Weissbecker I, et al. Mental health and psychosocial support in crisis and conflict: report of the Mental Health Working Group. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2009;24 Suppl 2:s217–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hollifield M, Warner TD, Lian N, et al. Measuring trauma and health status in refugees: a critical review. Jama. 2002;288:611–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Murray LK, Cohen JA, Ellis BH, Mannarino A. Cognitive behavioral therapy for symptoms of trauma and traumatic grief in refugee youth. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008;17:585–604. ix.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Montgomery E, Foldspang A. Validity of PTSD in a sample of refugee children: can a separate diagnostic entity be justified? Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2006;15:64–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chatty D, Crivello G, Hundt GL. Theoretical and Methodological Challenges of Studying Refugee Children in the Middle East and North Africa: young Palestinian, Afghan and Sahrawi Refugees. J Refug Stud. 2005;18:387–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Miller KE, Rasmussen A. War exposure, daily stressors, and mental health in conflict and post-conflict settings: bridging the divide between trauma-focused and psychosocial frameworks. Soc Sci Med. 2010;70:7–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boyden J, De Berry J. Children and youth on the front line: ethnography, armed conflict and displacement. UK: Berghahn Books; 2004.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Montgomery E. Long-term effects of organized violence on young Middle Eastern refugees’ mental health. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67:1596–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Punamäki R-L. The uninvited guest of War enters childhood: developmental and personality aspects of war and military violence. Traumatology. 2002;8:181–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bean T, Derluyn I, Eurelings-Bontekoe E, et al. Comparing psychological distress, traumatic stress reactions, and experiences of unaccompanied refugee minors with experiences of adolescents accompanied by parents. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007;195:288–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Macksoud MS, Aber JL. The war experiences and psychosocial development of children in Lebanon. Child Dev. 1996;67:70–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fullilove MT. Psychiatric implications of displacement: contributions from the psychology of place. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153:1516–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies among Bhutanese refugee children − Nepal, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57:370–3.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Basak P. The impact of occupation on child health in a Palestinian refugee camp. J Trop Pediatr. 2012;58:423–8.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Denov M, Bryan C. Tactical maneuvering and calculated risks: independent child migrants and the complex terrain of flight. New Dir Child Adolesc Dev. 2012;136:13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Derluyn I, Mels C, Broekaert E. Mental health problems in separated refugee adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2009;44:291–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hodes M, Jagdev D, Chandra N, Cunniff A. Risk and resilience for psychological distress amongst unaccompanied asylum seeking adolescents. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008;49:723–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ellis BH, MacDonald HZ, Klunk-Gillis J, et al. Discrimination and mental health among Somali refugee adolescents: the role of acculturation and gender. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2010;80:564–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wiegersma PA, Stellinga-Boelen AA, Reijneveld SA. Psychosocial problems in asylum seekers’ children: the parent, child, and teacher perspective using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2011;199:85–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Steel Z, Momartin S, Silove D, et al. Two year psychosocial and mental health outcomes for refugees subjected to restrictive or supportive immigration policies. Soc Sci Med. 2011;72:1149–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Feseha G, G/mariam A, Gerbaba M. Intimate partner physical violence among women in Shimelba refugee camp, northern Ethiopia. BMC Publ Health. 2012;12:125.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hynes M, Barbara LC. Observations from the CDC: sexual violence against refugee women. J Women’s Health Gend Based Med. 2000;9:819–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mahamud AS, Ahmed JA, Nyoka R, et al. Epidemic cholera in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya, 2009: the importance of sanitation and soap. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2012;6:234–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tappis H, Doocy S, Haskew C, et al. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees feeding program performance in Kenya and Tanzania: a retrospective analysis of routine Health Information System data. Food Nutr Bull. 2012;33:150–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Attanayake V, McKay R, Joffres M, et al. Prevalence of mental disorders among children exposed to war: a systematic review of 7,920 children. Med Confl Surviv. 2009;25:4–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Betancourt TS, Khan KT. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: protective processes and pathways to resilience. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2008;20:317–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Joseph S, Williams R. Understanding posttraumatic stress: theory, reflections, context and future. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2005;33:423–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mollica RF, Wyshak G, Lavelle J. The psychosocial impact of war trauma and torture on Southeast Asian refugees. Am J Psychiatry. 1987;144:1567–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    WaEA O’D. The current status of post traumatic stress syndrome as a diagnostic category: problems and proposals. J Trauma Stress. 1992;5:421–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Geltman PL, Grant-Knight W, Ellis H, Landgraf JM. The “lost boys” of Sudan: use of health services and functional health outcomes of unaccompanied refugee minors resettled in the US. J Immigr Minor Health. 2008;10:389–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lee YM, Shin OJ, Lim MH. The psychological problems of north korean adolescent refugees living in South Korea. Psychiatry Investig. 2012;9:217–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Montgomery E. Trauma, exile and mental health in young refugees. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2011;440:1–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mels C, Derluyn I, Broekaert E, Rosseel Y. The psychological impact of forced displacement and related risk factors on Eastern Congolese adolescents affected by war. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2010;51:1096–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Morina N, von Lersner U, Prigerson HG. War and bereavement: consequences for mental and physical distress. PLoS One. 2011;6:12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wakefield JC. Should prolonged grief be reclassified as a mental disorder in DSM-5?: reconsidering the empirical and conceptual arguments for complicated grief disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2012;200:499–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Spuij M, Reitz E, Prinzie P, et al. Distinctiveness of symptoms of prolonged grief, depression, and post-traumatic stress in bereaved children and adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;21:673–9.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shear K, Frank E, Houck PR, Reynolds 3rd CF. treatment of complicated grief: a randomized controlled trial. Jama. 2005;293:2601–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stroebe M, Schut H, Stroebe W. Health outcomes of bereavement. Lancet. 2007;370:1960–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Smith BD, Sabin M, Berlin EA, Nackerud L. Ethnomedical syndromes and treatment-seeking behavior among Mayan refugees in Chiapas, Mexico. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2009;33:366–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Livanis A, Tryon GS. The development of the Adolescent Nervios Scale: preliminary findings. Cult Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2010;16:9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lopez I, Rivera F, Ramirez R, et al. Ataques de Nervios and their psychiatric correlates in Puerto Rican children from two different contexts. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197:923–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Simons RaH, CC (Eds) The Culture-Bound Syndromes: Folk Illnesses of Psychiatric and Anthropological Interest. USA: Reidel Publishing; 1985.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    •• Fazel M, Reed RV, Panter-Brick C, Stein A. Mental health of displaced and refugee children resettled in high-income countries: risk and protective factors. Lancet. 2012;379:266–82. This comprehensive systematic review examines the evidence base for individual, family, community, and societal risk and protective factors for the mental health outcomes of child and adolescent refugees who resettle in high-income countries. The implications of the data with respect to design of interventions, policy and future research are also discussed. See also Reed et al. (2012).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    •• Reed RV, Fazel M, Jones L, et al. Mental health of displaced and refugee children resettled in low-income and middle-income countries: risk and protective factors. Lancet. 2012;379:250–65. This comprehensive systematic review examines the evidence base for individual, family, community, and societal risk and protective factors for the mental health outcomes of children and adolescent refugees displaced to low- and middle-income countries. Research and policy recommendations to guide the development and assessment of effective interventions are also discussed. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    •• Ellis BH, MacDonald HZ, Lincoln AK, Cabral HJ. Mental health of Somali adolescent refugees: the role of trauma, stress, and perceived discrimination. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008;76:184–93. This study examines the effect of a multi-tiered program for Somali refugee youth that includes prevention and community resilience building, school-based early intervention groups for at-risk students and direct intervention for students with significant psychological distress due to trauma. This novel model of treatment resulted in improvement in mental health and resources for all participants. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Thabet AA, Ibraheem AN, Shivram R, et al. Parenting support and PTSD in children of a war zone. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2009;55:226–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Berthold SM. The effects of exposure to community violence on Khmer refugee adolescents. J Trauma Stress. 1999;12:455–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kronick R, Cleveland J, Rousseau C. Mandatory detention of refugee children: a public health issue? Paediatr Child Health. 2011;16:65–7.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Karenian H, Livaditis M, Karenian S, et al. Collective trauma transmission and traumatic reactions among descendants of Armenian refugees. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2011;57:327–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vaage AB, Thomsen PH, Rousseau C, et al. Paternal predictors of the mental health of children of Vietnamese refugees. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2011;5:2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rousseau C, Drapeau A, Rahimi S. The complexity of trauma response: a 4-year follow-up of adolescent Cambodian refugees. Child Abuse Negl. 2003;27:1277–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bonanno GA. Loss, trauma, and human resilience: have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? Am Psychol. 2004;59:20–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bonanno GA, Brewin CR, Kaniasty K, Greca AML. Weighing the costs of disaster. Psychol Sci Public Interest. 2010;11:1–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tedeschi R, Calhoun L. Posttraumatic growth: conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychol Inq. 2004;15:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hussain D, Bhushan B. Posttraumatic stress and growth among Tibetan refugees: the mediating role of cognitive-emotional regulation strategies. J Clin Psychol. 2011;67:720–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kroo A, Nagy H. Posttraumatic growth among traumatized Somali refugees in Hungary. J Loss Trauma. 2011;16:440–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Teodorescu DS, Siqveland J, Heir T, et al. Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2012;10:84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Levine SZ, Laufer A, Stein E, et al. Examining the relationship between resilience and posttraumatic growth. J Trauma Stress. 2009;22:282–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Clay R, Knibbs J, Joseph S. Measurement of posttraumatic growth in young people: a review. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;14:411–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Meyerson DA, Grant KE, Carter JS, Kilmer RP. Posttraumatic growth among children and adolescents: a systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31:949–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Peltonen K, Punamaki RL. Preventive interventions among children exposed to trauma of armed conflict: a literature review. Aggress Behav. 2010;36:95–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC): IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. 2007: Available at http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/iasc/. Accessed September 2012.
  73. 73.
    Jordans MJ, Komproe IH, Tol WA, et al. Practice-driven evaluation of a multi-layered psychosocial care package for children in areas of armed conflict. Community Ment Health J. 2011;47:267–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    American Psychological Association (APA): Resilience and recovery after war: Refugee children and families in the United States. 2010: Available at http://www.apa.org/pi/families/refugees.aspx. Accessed September 2012.
  75. 75.
    Fazel M, Doll H, Stein A. A school-based mental health intervention for refugee children: an exploratory study. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;14:297–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rousseau C, Benoit M, Lacroix L, Gauthier MF. Evaluation of a sandplay program for preschoolers in a multiethnic neighborhood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;50:743–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rousseau C, Guzder J. School-based prevention programs for refugee children. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008;17:533–49. viii.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rousseau C, Pottie K, Thombs BD, et al. Canadian collaboration for immigrant and refugee health guidelines for immigrant health, Appendix 11: post traumatic stress disorder, evidence review for newly arriving immigrants and refugees. CMAJ. 2012: Available at http://www.cmaj.ca/content/suppl/2010/06/07/cmaj.090313.DC1/imm-ptsd-11-at.pdf. Accessed November 2012.
  79. 79.
    Howard M, Hodes M. Psychopathology, adversity, and service utilization of young refugees. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000;39:368–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rousseau C, Measham T, Nadeau L. Addressing trauma in collaborative mental health care for refugee children. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry, 2012. Available at http://ccp.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/05/22/1359104512444117.abstract. Accessed November 2012.
  81. 81.
    Ellis BH, Miller AB, Abdi S, et al. Multi-tier mental health program for refugee youth. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012. Available at http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2012-23383-001/. Accessed November 2012.
  82. 82.
    Saxe GNE, Heidi B, Kaplow, Julie B. Collaborative treatment of traumatized children and teens: The trauma systems therapy approach. New York: Guilford Press; US; 2007.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ehlers A, Bisson J, Clark DM, et al. Do all psychological treatments really work the same in posttraumatic stress disorder? Clin Psychol Rev. 2010;30:269–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): The management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care 2005: Available at http://http://publications.nice.org.uk/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-cg26. Accessed September 2012.
  85. 85.
    Ter Heide FJ, Mooren TM, Kleijn W, et al. EMDR versus stabilisation in traumatised asylum seekers and refugees: results of a pilot study. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2011;2:16.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    • Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Kliethermes M, Murray LA. Trauma-focused CBT for youth with complex trauma. Child Abuse Negl. 2012;36:528–41. This article describes a method by which TF-CBT can be adapted for youth with complex trauma. Using a step-by-step approach, practical modifications to the treatment phases of TF-CBT are proposed and illustrated with case examples. This treatment method has only been validated in non-refugee populations thus far, but shows promise and may help therapists adapt TF-CBT for youth with multiple traumas. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    • Robjant K, Fazel M. The emerging evidence for Narrative Exposure Therapy: a review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2010;30:1030–9. This publication reviews the evidence for the use of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) for adults, and an adapted version for children (KidNET), to treat PTSD as the result of trauma and organized violence. Evidence for the efficacy of NET and KidNET is presented for both resettled refugees and those who remain in volatile and insecure settings. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Neuner F, Schauer M, Klaschik C, et al. A comparison of narrative exposure therapy, supportive counseling, and psychoeducation for treating posttraumatic stress disorder in an african refugee settlement. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72:579–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Schauer M, Neuner F, Elbert T. Narrative exposure therapy − a short term intervention for traumatic stress disorders after war, terror or torture. Seattle: Hogrefe; 2005.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Neuner F, Catani C, Ruf M, et al. Narrative exposure therapy for the treatment of traumatized children and adolescents (KidNET): from neurocognitive theory to field intervention. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008;17:641–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gemignani M. The past if past: the use of memories and self-healing narratives in refugees from the former yugoslavia. J Refug Stud. 2011;24:132–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Catani C, Kohiladevy M, Ruf M, et al. Treating children traumatized by war and Tsunami: a comparison between exposure therapy and meditation-relaxation in North-East Sri Lanka. BMC Psychiatry. 2009;9:22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ruf M, Schauer M, Neuner F, et al. Narrative exposure therapy for 7- to 16-year-olds: a randomized controlled trial with traumatized refugee children. J Trauma Stress. 2010;23:437–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Schaal S, Elbert T, Neuner F. Narrative exposure therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy. A pilot randomized controlled trial with Rwandan genocide orphans. Psychother Psychosom. 2009;78:298–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Measham T, Rousseau C. Family disclosure of war trauma to children. Traumatology. 2010;16:85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hardi L, Kroo A. Psychotherapy and psychosocial care of torture survivor refugees in Hungary: “a never-ending journey”. Torture. 2011;21:84–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hetrick SE, Purcell R, Garner B, Parslow R. Combined pharmacotherapy and psychological therapies for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;7.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jones L. Responding to the needs of children in crisis. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2008;20:291–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rothe EM. A psychotherapy model for treating refugee children caught in the midst of catastrophic situations. J Am Acad Psychoanal Dyn Psychiatry. 2008;36:625–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Canadian Medical Association. Continue coverage for refugees: CMA. Canadian Medical Association Bulletin. Can Med Assoc J. 2012;184:1212.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Équipe de recherche et d’intervention transculturelles, Divisions of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry and Child PsychiatryMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada
  2. 2.Équipe de recherche et d’intervention transculturelles, Divisions of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry and Child PsychiatryMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations