Current Psychiatry Reports

, 13:351

Update on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Tic Disorders: A Review of the Current Literature

Article
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Abstract

Tic disorders impact quality of life, but when they are co-occurring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the combined impact takes a toll on psychosocial functioning and adds another layer of complexity to treatment approaches. A review of the current literature supports evidence of a unique relationship between comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and tic disorders, emphasizing the intricate phenotype and impairment associated with these co-occurring conditions. The complexity of these symptoms requires careful diagnosis and appropriate treatment as determined by the level of impairment and can include pharmacotherapy, behavioral interventions, or a combination of therapies. To achieve the greatest benefits in improving quality of life and eliminating further comorbidity, an ideal treatment plan would include a comprehensive evaluation as well as a hierarchical treatment approach involving education of the child, family, and teachers; careful medication management; and cognitive and behavioral training.

Keywords

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ADHD Tic disorders Tourette syndrome Treatment Comorbidity 

References

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heather A. Simpson
    • 1
  • Leah Jung
    • 1
  • Tanya K. Murphy
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and PediatricsUniversity of South Florida College of Medicine, Rothman Center for Pediatric NeuropsychiatrySt. PetersburgUSA

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