Advertisement

Current Psychiatry Reports

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 217–224 | Cite as

Medical comorbidity and alcohol dependence

  • Paolo MannelliEmail author
  • Chi Un Pae
Article

Abstract

Alcohol dependence (AD) and, more generally, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) predispose individuals to adverse consequences that extend beyond the expected damage from alcohol-direct toxicity. Research has shown that the relationship of alcohol use to health outcomes is complex, as is the etiology of AD, and that the individual and social costs of alcohol-related problems are increasing. We review advances in alcohol science that explore the role of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking in a range of medically comorbid conditions. Although new knowledge can assist in the development of appropriate medical management strategies, AUDs account for an important percentage of the global burden of disease and require approaches that are not uniquely focused on the identification and treatment of AD.

Keywords

Alcohol Consumption Hepatic Encephalopathy Alcohol Dependence Alcoholic Liver Disease Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    O’Connor PG, Schottenfeld RS: Patients with alcohol problems. N Engl J Med 1998, 338:592–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rice DP: Economic costs of substance abuse, 1995. Proc Assoc Am Physicians 1999, 111:119–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harwood TN: Optimizing outcome in the very elderly surgical patient. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2000, 13:327–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shuckit M: Alcohol and alcoholism. In Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, edn 16. Edited by Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci S, et al. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005:372.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Al-Sanouri I, Dikin M, Soubani AO: Critical care aspects of alcohol abuse. South Med J 2005, 98:372–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rehm J, Room R, Monteiro M, et al.: Alcohol as a risk factor for global burden of disease. The relationship of average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking to burden of disease: an overview. Eur Addict Res 2003, 9:157–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Corrao G, Bagnardi V, Zambon A, La Vecchia C: A meta-analysis of alcohol consumption and the risk of 15 diseases. Prev Med 2004, 38:613–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rehm J, Ashley MJ, Room R, et al.: On the emerging paradigm of drinking patterns and their social and health consequences. Addiction 1996, 91:1615–1621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rehm J, Gmel G, Sempos CT, Trevisan M: Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. Alcohol Res Health 2003, 27:39–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Available at: http://niaaa. census.gov. Accessed February 2007.
  11. 11.
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol alert: Alcohol’s damaging effects on the brain. Available at: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm. Accessed February 2007.
  12. 12.
    Chang PH, Steinberg MB: Alcohol withdrawal. Med Clin North Am 2001, 85:1191–1212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hillemacher T, Bayerlein K, Wilhelm J, et al.: Volume intake and craving in alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Alcohol 2006, 41:61–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bard MR, Goettler CE, Toschlog EA, et al.: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome: turning minor injuries into a major problem. J Trauma 2006, 61:1441–1445; discussion 1445–1446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saitz R: Clinical practice. Unhealthy alcohol use. N Engl J Med 2005, 352:596–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dolman JM, Hawkes ND: Combining the audit questionnaire and biochemical markers to assess alcohol use and risk of alcohol withdrawal in medical inpatients. Alcohol Alcohol 2005, 40:515–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dbouk N, McGuire BM: Hepatic encephalopathy: a review of its pathophysiology and treatment. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 2006, 9:464–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Quero Guillen JC, Carmona Soria I, Garcia Montes JM, et al.: Hepatic encephalopathy: nomenclature, pathogenesis and treatment. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2003, 95:127–142.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thuluvath PJ: Higher prevalence and severity of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with HCV cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus: is presence of autonomic neuropathy the missing part of the puzzle? Am J Gastroenterol 2006, 101:2244–2246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Said A, Williams J, Holden J, et al.: Model for end stage liver disease score predicts mortality across a broad spectrum of liver disease. J Hepatol 2004, 40:897–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li YY, Nie YQ, Sha WH, et al.: Prevalence of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients in China. World J Gastroenterol 2004, 10:2397–2401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Das A, Dhiman RK, Saraswat VA, et al.: Prevalence and natural history of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001, 16:531–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mann RE, Smart RG, Govoni R: The epidemiology of alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol Res Health 2003, 27:209–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Levitsky J, Mailliard ME: Diagnosis and therapy of alcoholic liver disease. Semin Liver Dis 2004, 24:233–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stickel F, Hoehn B, Schuppan D, Seitz HK: Review article: nutritional therapy in alcoholic liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003, 18:357–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bellentani S, Saccoccio G, Costa G, et al.: Drinking habits as cofactors of risk for alcohol induced liver damage. The Dionysos Study Group. Gut 1997, 41:845–850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lu XL, Luo JY, Tao M, et al.: Risk factors for alcoholic liver disease in China. World J Gastroenterol 2004, 10:2423–2426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hamdy RC, Aukerman MM: Alcohol on trial: the evidence. South Med J 2005, 98:34–68; quiz 69–71, 78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Strate T, Knoefel WT, Yekebas E, et al.: Chronic pancreatitis: etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Int J Colorectal Dis 2003, 18:97–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Welsch T, Kleeff J, Seitz HK, et al.: Update on pancreatic cancer and alcohol-associated risk. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006, 21(Suppl 3):S69–S75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Corrao G, Rubbiati L, Bagnardi V, et al.: Alcohol and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Addiction 2000, 95:1505–1523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    O’Connor AD, Rusyniak DE, Bruno A: Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular complications of alcohol and sympathomimetic drug abuse. Med Clin North Am 2005, 89:1343–1358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Murray RP, Connett JE, Tyas SL, et al.: Alcohol volume, drinking pattern, and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality: is there a U-shaped function? Am J Epidemiol 2002, 155:242–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Trevisan MT, Ram M, Hovey K, et al.: Alcohol drinking patterns and myocardial infarction. Am J Epidemiol 2001, 153:S97.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rehm J, Sempos CT, Trevisan M: Alcohol and cardiovascular disease-more than one paradox to consider. Average volume of alcohol consumption, patterns of drinking and risk of coronary heart disease-a review. J Cardiovasc Risk 2003, 10:15–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mukamal KJ, Chiuve SE, Rimm EB: Alcohol consumption and risk for coronary heart disease in men with healthy lifestyles. Arch Intern Med 2006, 166:2145–2150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mukamal KJ, Maclure M, Muller JE, et al.: Binge drinking and mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Drinking frequency, mediating biomarkers, and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men. Circulation 2005, 112:3839–3845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Riedel F, Goessler UR, Hormann K: Alcohol-related diseases of the mouth and throat. Dig Dis 2005, 23:195–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Riedel F, Goessler U, Hormann K: Alcohol-related diseases of the mouth and throat. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2003, 17:543–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Maier H, Tisch M, Conradt C, Potschke-Langer M: [Alcohol drinking and cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract in women]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1999, 124:851–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gronbaek M, Becker U, Johansen D, et al.: Population based cohort study of the association between alcohol intake and cancer of the upper digestive tract. BMJ 1998, 317:844–847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS, et al.: Alcohol and breast cancer in women: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA 1998, 279:535–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ginsburg ES: Estrogen, alcohol and breast cancer risk. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1999, 69:299–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zheng T, Holford TR, Zahm SH, et al.: Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms, alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer 2003, 88:58–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Baumbach J: Some implications of prenatal alcohol exposure for the treatment of adolescents with sexual offending behaviors. Sex Abuse 2002, 14:313–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schonfeld AM, Paley B, Frankel F, O’Connor MJ: Executive functioning predicts social skills following prenatal alcohol exposure. Child Neuropsychol 2006, 12:439–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gmel G, Rehm J: Harmful alcohol use. Alcohol Res Health 2003, 27:52–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brewer RD, Swahn MH: Binge drinking and violence. JAMA 2005, 294:616–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cherpitel CJ, Ye Y, Bond J: Attributable risk of injury associated with alcohol use: cross-national data from the emergency room collaborative alcohol analysis project. Am J Public Health 2005, 95:266–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yi H, Williams GD, Smothers BA: Trends in Alcohol-Related Fatal Traffic Crashes: United States, 1977–2002. Surveillance Report No. 69. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; 2004.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yi H, Williams GD, Dufour MD: Trends in Alcohol Related Fatal Traffic Crashes, United States 1977–1999. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; 2003.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Naturalistic studies (driving in traffic). Available at: http://www. nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/olddrive/DrugUse_Older-Driver/pages/NaturalStud-1.htm. Accessed February 2007.
  53. 53.
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. No. 25 PH 351. Available at: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa25.htm. Accessed February 2007.
  54. 54.
    Devieux JG, Malow R, Lerner BG, et al.: Triple jeopardy for HIV: substance using severely mentally ill adults. J Prev Interv Community 2007, 33:5–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pihl RO, Hoaken P: Biological bases of addiction and aggression in close relationships. In The Violence and Addiction Equation: Theoretical and Clinical Issues in Substance Abuse and Relationship Violence. Edited by Wekerle C, Wall AM. New York: Brunner-Routledge; 2001:25–43.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hessol NA, Kalinowski A, Benning L, et al.: Mortality among participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Clin Infect Dis 2007, 44:287–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Molina PE, McNurlan M, Rathmacher J, et al.: Chronic alcohol accentuates nutritional, metabolic, and immune alterations during asymptomatic simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2006, 30:2065–2078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rehm J, Monteiro M, Room R, et al.: Steps towards constructing a global comparative risk analysis for alcohol consumption: determining indicators and empirical weights for pattern of drinking, deciding about theoretical minimum, and dealing with different consequences. Eur Addict Res 2001, 7:138–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, et al.: Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet 2002, 360:1347–1360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    World Health Organization (WHO): World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva: WHO; 2002.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Medicine Group LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Duke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations