Advertisement

Current Psychiatry Reports

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 196–200 | Cite as

Rapid eye movement sleep, non-rapid eye movement sleep, dreams, and hallucinations

  • Raffaele Manni
Article

Abstract

After the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in 1953, oneiric activity was long thought to be associated uniquely with REM sleep. Subsequent evaluation of sleep in humans combining neurophysiologic, psychophysiologic, and, more recently, functional neuroimaging investigations, has instead shown that dreaming also occurs during non-REM (NREM) sleep. It has been documented that hallucinatory activity during sleep is a normal phenomenon that is not constant throughout the night but increases toward morning when it tends to become present to the same extent in REM and NREM sleep. The role of sleep mechanisms in the generation of visual hallucinations is well-recognized in narcolepsy in the case of hypnagogic hallucinations, which are thought to derive from a REM-dissociation state in which dream imagery intrudes into wakefulness. Similar mechanisms have been hypothesized to play a role in the physiopathogenesis of visual hallucinations in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence indicates that not only REM but also NREM processes, such as arousal-related processes, may play a role in the physiopathogenesis of hallucinations in the aforementioned disorders. The role of these processes has been most extensively documented in visual hallucinations occurring in the context of delirium tremens and Parkinson’s disease.

Keywords

Psychotic Disorder Narcolepsy Visual Hallucination NREM Sleep Delirium Tremens 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Dement W, Kleitman N: Cyclic variations in EEG during sleep and their relation to eye movements, body motility, and dreaming. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1957, 9:673–690.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jouvet M, Michel F, Courjon J: Sur un stade d’activite’ electrique cerebrale rapide au cours du sommeil physiologique. C R Soc Biol 1959, 153:1024–1028.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aserinsky E, Kleitman N: Regularly occurring periods of eye motility and concurrent phenomena during sleep. Science 1953, 118:273–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dement W, Kleitman N: The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity: An objective method for the study of dreaming. J Exp Psychol 1957, 53:89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Foulkes D: Dream reports from different stages of sleep. J Abnorm Soc Psychol 1962, 65:14–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Foulkes D, Vogel G: Mental activity at sleep onset. J Abnorm Psychol 1965, 70:231–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Salzarulo P: Etude electroencephalographique et polygraphique du sommeil d’aprés-midi chez le sujet normal. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1971, 30:399–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Monroe LJ, Rechtschaffen A, Foulkes D, Jensen J: Discriminability of REM and NREM reports. J Pers Soc Psychol 1965, 2:456–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Solms M: Dreaming and REM sleep are controlled by different brain mechanisms. Behav Brain Sci 2000, 23:843–850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bischof M, Bassetti CL: Total dream loss: a distinct neuropsychological dysfunction after bilateral PCA stroke. Ann Neurol 2004, 56:583–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fagioli I: Mental activity during sleep. Sleep Med Rev 2002, 6:307–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Takeuchi T, Ogilvie RD, Murphy TI, Ferrelli AV: EEG activities during elicited sleep onset REM and NREM periods reflect different mechanisms of dream generation. Clin Neurophysiology 2003, 104:210–220. A two-generator model of dreaming in REM and NREM sleep is hypothesized by means of EEG power spectra analysis during REM and NREM dreams. In particular, the role of arousal processes in underlying NREM dreaming is emphasized.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nielsen TA: A review of mentation in REM and NREM sleep: "Covert" REM sleep as a possible reconciliation of two opposing models. Behav Brain Sci 2000, 23:851–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fosse R, Stickgold R, Hobson JA: Thinking and hallucinating: reciprocal changes in sleep. Psychophysiology 2004, 41:298–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Takahasshi K: Intensity of REM sleep. In Rapid Eye Movement sleep. Edited by Maliick BN, Inoue I. New York: Marcel Decker; 1999:382–392.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Werth E, Acherman P, Dijk DJ, Borbely AA: Spindle frequency activity in the sleep EEG: Individual differences and topographic distribution. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiology 1997, 103:535–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maquet P: Functional neuroimaging of normal human sleep by positron emission tomography. Sleep Res 2000, 9:207–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maquet P, Degueldre C, Belfiore G, et al.: Functional neuroanatomy of human rapid-eye-movement sleep and dreaming. Nature 1996, 383:163–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hobson JA, Pace-Schott EF: The cognitive neuroscience of sleep: neuronal systems, consciousness and learning. Nature 2002, 3:679–693.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kramer M: Dreams and Psychopathology. In Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. Edited by Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 2000:511–519.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maquet P, Schwartz MS: Evaluation of dreams by the neuropsychological approach. Utility in the characterization of cerebral correlates in oneiric activity by functional neuroimaging. Bull Med Acad R Med Belg 2002, 157:214–219. The combination of neurophysiologic, neuropsychologic, and neuroimaging approaches in investigating sleep and dreaming give additional insights about lesional brain syndromes and the neurobiological substrate of their clinical manifestations, including disperceptive phenomena.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Watson D: Dissociations of the night: individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. J Abnorm Psychol 2001, 110:526–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Thalbourne MA, Houran J: Transliminality, the mental experience inventory, and tolerance of ambiguity. Pers Individ Dif 2000, 28:853–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    McCreery C: Hallucinations and arousability: Pointers to a theory of psychosis. In Schyzotipy: Implications for Illness and Health. Edited by Claridge G. New York: Oxford University Press; 1997:251–273.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    American Sleep Disorders Association: International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Revised: Diagnostic and Coding Manual. Rochester, MN: American Sleep Disorders Association; 1997.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Szucs A, Janszky J, Hollò A, et al.: Misleading hallucinations in unrecognized narcolepsy. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2003, 108:314–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gurstelle EB, de Oliveira JL: Daytime parahypnagogia: a state of consciousness that occurs when we almost fall asleep. Med Hypoth 2004, 62:166–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ohayon MM: Prevalence of hallucinations and their pathological ssociations in the general population. Psychiatry Res 2000, 97:153–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Laroi F, Marczewski P, Van der Linden M: Further evidence of the multi-dimensionality of hallucinatory predisposition: factor structure of a modified version of the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale in a normal sample. Eur Psychiatry 2004, 19:15–20. Sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic hallucinations and vivid dreams are documented to contribute to the multidimensionality of the hallucinatory predisposition in general population. The role of sleep mechanisms in hallucinating is stressed.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    American Psychiatry Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatry Association; 2000.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lasegue C: Le delire alcoolique n’est pas un delire, mais un reve. Arch Gen Med 1881, 88:513–536.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Greenberg R, Pearlman C: Delirium tremens and dreaming. Am J Psychiatry 1967, 124:133–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tachibana M, Tanaka K, Hishikawa Y, Kaneko Z: A sleep study of acute psychotic states due to alcohol and meprobamate addiction. In Advances in Sleep Research, Volume 2. Edited by Weitzman ED. New York: NY Spectrum Publications; 1975:177–205.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Plazzi G, Montagna P, Meletti S, Lugaresi E: Polysomnographic study of sleeplessness and oneiricisms in the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Sleep Med 2002, 3:279–282. An altered behavioral state with visual hallucinations in the acute phase of alcohol withdrawal has been documented, using videopolysomnography, to come from a dissociated state of sleep, consisting of atypical transitional state between REM and wake with enacted dreams.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kulisevsky J, Roldan E: Hallucinations and sleep disturbances in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 2004, 63:28–30.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Onofrj M, Thomas A, D’Andreamatteo G, et al.: Incidence of RBD and hallucination in patients affected by Parkinson’s disease: 8-year follow-up. Neurol Sci 2002, 23:91–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Goetz CG, Wuu J, Curgian LM, Leurgans S: Hallucinations and sleep disorders in PD: six-year prospective longitudinal study. Neurology 2005, 64:81–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Arnulf I, Bonnet AM, Damier P, et al.: Hallucinations, REM sleep, and Parkinson’s disease. A medical hypothesis. Neurology 2000, 55:281–287. Some visual hallucinations in non-demented PD patients have been documented to originate from disordered REM sleep and to consist of dream imagery. Narcolepsy-like disorder rather than a psychogenic one has been thought to underlie psychosis in these patients.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Manni R, Pacchetti C, Terzaghi M, et al.: Hallucinations and sleep-wake cycle in PD. A 24-hour continuous polysomnographic study. Neurology 2002, 59:1979–1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Manford M, Andermann F: Complex visual hallucinations: clinical and neurobiological insights. Brain 1998, 121:1819–1840.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Science Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raffaele Manni
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto Neurologico “C. Mondino” Via Mondino 2PaviaItaly

Personalised recommendations