The Hypertensive Headache: a Review
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Purpose of Review
The purpose of this review is to provide an overview and update on the common causes of headache attributed to arterial hypertension with a focus on secondary headache disorders. We will also highlight uncommon and recent findings in this area of research.
There is some controversy in the relationship between chronic hypertension and headache, particularly migraine; recent research suggests that there may be a link, but it is likely complex and multifactorial. Many recent studies and case reports demonstrate that the pathophysiology underlying the onset of headache as it relates to abrupt rises in blood pressure seems to lie at the cellular level and mechanically becomes an issue with disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Although not a formally defined headache entity, carotid revascularization syndrome demonstrates this phenomenon and also has a recent set of proposed criteria that include headache and elevated blood pressure.
This paper reviews the various etiologies of hypertensive headaches, mostly in regard to headache as a secondary symptom of elevated blood pressure. We will also discuss trends of hypertensive headache in pregnancy. Finally, we will touch on controversy that exists in relation to chronic hypertension and its causal relationship to headache as well as the relationship between hypertension and migraine.
KeywordsSecondary headache Headache Hypertension Blood pressure Arterial Autoregulation
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Karissa N. Arca and Rashmi B. Halker Singh declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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