Advertisement

Migraine: Stigma in Society

  • Simy K. Parikh
  • William B. YoungEmail author
Episodic Migraine (S. Nahas, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Episodic Migraine

Abstract

Migraine is a prevalent disease with a substantial socioeconomic impact. However, stigma affects social attitude toward migraine, accruing additional burden on individuals with migraine and isolating them from a society that should be supporting them.

Purpose of this Review

This review will discuss the following concepts: (1) the emergence of stigma toward migraine and its impact on medical care; (2) internalized stigma among those with migraine and its detrimental effect on quality of life and patient-physician relationships; (3) the structural impact of stigma on research funding, workplace support, and specialized care; and (4) strategies for “rebranding” the disease and alleviating stigma toward migraine.

Recent Findings

Recent literature on condition rebranding offers strategies on how to define and communicate migraine to the public.

Summary

Rebranding of migraine to alleviate societal stigma is paramount. This involves use of unified language, education, and advocacy.

Keywords

Stigma Migraine Disability Rebranding Wellness 

Notes

Funding Information

Research partially funded by The Groten Family Fund

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Simy K. Parikh and William B. Young declare no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Lipton RB, Bigal ME, Diamond M, Freitag F, Reed ML, Stewart WF. Migraine prevalence, disease burden, and the need for preventive therapy. Neurology. 2007;68:343–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    • Vos T, Barber RM, Bell B, Bertozzi-Villa A, Biryukov S, Bolliger I, et al. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2015;386:743–800 This analysis demonstrates the significant total impact of migraine on global disability. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Murray CJL, Vos T, Lozano R, Naghavi M, Flaxman AD, Michaud C, et al. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2197–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vos T, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, Lozano R, Michaud C, Ezzati M, et al. Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2163–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stokes M, Becker WJ, Lipton RB, Sullivan SD, Wilcox TK, Wells L, et al. Cost of health care among patients with chronic and episodic migraine in Canada and the USA: results from the International Burden of Migraine Study (IBMS). Headache J Head Face Pain. 2011;51(7):1058–77Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Linde M, Gustavsson A, Stovner LJ, Steiner TJ, Barré J, Katsarava Z, et al. The cost of headache disorders in Europe: the Eurolight project. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19:703–11. Available from:.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03612.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Diamond S, Diamond ML, Reed M. Prevalence and Burden of migraine in the United States data from the American Migraine Study II. Headache. 2001;41:646–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    The World Health Organization, Burden LT. Atlas of headache disorders and resources in the world 2011. Trento: World Heal. Organ; 2011.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Link BG, Phelan JC. Conceptualizing stigma. Annu Rev Sociol. 2001;27:363–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Foxhall K. Migraines were taken more seriously in medieval times: where did we go wrong? [Internet]. Available from: theconversation.com/migraines-were-taken-more-seriously-in-medieval-times-where-did-we-go-wrong-64497 [Accessed 26 Apr 2018].
  11. 11.
    • Kempner J. Gendering the migraine market: do representations of illness matter? Soc Sci Med. 2006;63:1986–97 This dicussion describes how migriane is represented commerically and offers perspective on how marketing can influence the development of societal stigma toward migraine. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rao D, Choi SW, Victorson D, Bode R, Peterman A, Heinemann A, et al. Measuring stigma across neurological conditions: the development of the stigma scale for chronic illness (SSCI). Qual Life Res. 2009;18:585–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jacoby A. Felt versus enacted stigma: a concept revisited. Evidence from a study of people with epilepsy in remission. Soc Sci Med. 1994;38:269–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    •• Young WB, Park JE, Tian IX, Kempner J. The stigma of migraine. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54074. This is an original study assessing internalized stigma in individuals with migriane, which demonstrates a link between ability to work and internalized stigma among people with chronic migriane. Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sirey JA, Bruce ML, Alexopoulos GS, Perlick DA, Friedman SJ, Meyers BS. Stigma as a barrier to recovery: perceived stigma and patient-rated severity of illness as predictors of antidepressant drug adherence. Psychiatr Serv. 2001;52:1615–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    • Pescosolido BA, Martin JK. The stigma complex. Annu rev Sociol. 2015;41:87–116 This is a comprehensive review on the multiple individual and community factors that contribute to the complexity of stigma. This review also discusses the terminology involved in the study of stigma. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    • Minen MT, Anglin C, Boubour A, Squires A, Herrmann L. Meta-synthesis on migraine management. Headache J Head Face Pain. 2018;58:22–44 This is a recent analysis and a discussion on five emerging themes regarding patients’ perspectives on migraine treatment. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lipton R, Bigal M, Rush S, Yenkosky J, Lieberman J, Bartleson J, et al. Migraine practice patterns among neurologists. Neurology. 2004;62:1926–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buse DC, Scher AI, Dodick DW, Reed ML, Fanning KM, Manack Adams A, et al. Impact of migraine on the family: perspectives of people with migraine and their spouse/domestic partner in the CaMEO study. Mayo Clin Proc The Authors. 2016;91:596–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Watson A, Corrigan P, Larson J, Sells M. Self-stigma in people with mental illness. Schizophr Bull Oxford University Press. 2006;33:1312–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Aydemir N, Ozkara C, Pinar U, Canbeyli R. A comparative study of health related quality of life, psychological well-being, impact of illness and stigma in epilepsy and migraine. Seizure. 2011;20:679–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schwedt TJ, Shapiro RE. Funding of research on headache disorders by the National Institutes of Health. Headache J Head Face Pain. 2009;49:162–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Borkum J, Evans RW. Disability and chronic migraine. Headache J Head Face Pain. 2014;54:719–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    D’Amico D, Grazzi L, Curone M, Di Fiore P, Proietti Cecchini A, Leonardi M, et al. Difficulties in work activities and the pervasive effect over disability in patients with episodic and chronic migraine. Neurol Sci. 2015;36:9–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Employees hide headaches, migraines from supervisors. [Internet]. Available from: https://www.reuters.com/brandfeatures/excedrin/employees-hide-headaches-migraines-from-supervisors Accessed 25 Apr 2018.
  26. 26.
    UCNS Diplomates Certified in Headache Medicine. [Internet]. Available from: https://www.ucns.org/globals/axon/assets/12644.pdf Accessed 26 Apr 2018.
  27. 27.
    • Angelmar R, Angular S, Kane L. Building strong condition brands. J Med Mark. 1745;7:341–51 This discussion offers a unique analysis on the elements of disease “branding,” which can be applied to rebranding migraine. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pearce J. Historical aspects of migraine. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986;49:1097–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    •• Young WB. De-stigmatizing migraine—with words. Headache. 2018;58:319–21 This is a discussion offers strategies for using unified languagae to avoid perpetuating stigma toward migraine. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Corrigan PW, Morris SB, Michaels PJ, Rafacz JD, Rüsch N. Challenging the public stigma of mental illness: a meta-analysis of outcome studies. Psychiatr Serv. 2012;63:963–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kubota JT, Peiso J, Marcum K, Cloutier J. Intergroup contact throughout the lifespan modulates implicit racial biases across perceivers’ racial group. PLoS One. 2017;12:e0180440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shapiro R, Lipton R, Reiner P. EHMTI-0313. Factors influencing stigma towards persons with migraine. J Headache Pain. Springer. 2014;15:E36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Jefferson Hospital for NeurosciencePhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations